Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 40418

Medical and Health Sciences

A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial of Pure L-Ascorbic Acid with Use a Needle-Free and Micro-Needle Mesotherapy in Treatment Anti-Aging Procedure
The epidermis is a keratinized stratified squamous epithelium covered by the hydro-lipid barrier. Therefore, active substances should be able to penetrate through this hydro-lipid coating. L-ascorbic acid is one of the vitamins which plays an important role in stimulation fibroblast to produce collagen type I and in hyperpigmentation lightening. Vitamin C is a water-soluble antioxidant, which protects skin from oxidation damage and rejuvenates photoaged skin. No-needle mesotherapy is a non-invasive rejuvenation technique depending on electric pulses, electroporation, and ultrasounds. These physicals factors result in deeper penetration of cosmetics. It is important to increase the penetration of L-ascorbic acid, thereby increasing the spectrum of its activity. The aim of the work was to assess the effectiveness of pure L-ascorbic acid activity in anti-aging therapy using a needle-free and micro-needling mesotherapy. The study was performed on a group of 35 healthy volunteers in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki of 1964 and agreement of the Ethics Commissions no RNN/281/16/KE 2017. Women were randomized to mesotherapy or control group. Control group applied topically 2,5 ml serum containing 20% L-ascorbic acid with hydrate from strawberries, every 10 days for a period of 9 weeks. No-needle mesotherapy, on the left half of the face and micro-needling on the right with the same serum, was done in mesotherapy group. The pH of serum was 3.5-4, and the serum was prepared directly prior to the facial treatment. The skin parameters were measured at the beginning and before each treatment. The measurement of the forehead skin was done using Cutometer® (measurement of skin elasticity and firmness), Corneometer® (skin hydration measurement), Mexameter® (skin tone measurement). Also, the photographs were taken by Fotomedicus system. Additionally, the volunteers fulfilled the questionnaire. Serum was tested for microbiological purity and stability after the opening of the cosmetic. During the study, all of the volunteers were taken care of a dermatologist. The regular application of the serum has caused improvement of the skin parameters. Respectively, after 4 and 8 weeks improvement in hydration and elasticity has been seen (Corneometer®, Cutometer® results). Moreover, the number of hyper-pigmentated spots has decreased (Mexameter®). After 8 weeks the volunteers has claimed that the tested product has smoothing and moisturizing features. Subjective opinions indicted significant improvement of skin color and elasticity. The product containing the L-ascorbic acid used with intercellular penetration promoters demonstrates higher anti-aging efficiency than control. In vivo studies confirmed the effectiveness of serum and the impact of the active substance on skin firmness and elasticity, the degree of hydration and skin tone. Mesotherapy with pure L-ascorbic acid provides better diffusion of active substances through the skin.
A Comparative Study of Efficacy and Safety of Salicylic Acid, Trichloroacetic Acid and Glycolic Acid in Various Facial Melanosis
Introduction: Chemical peeling is a popular, relatively inexpensive day procedure and generally safe method for treatment of pigmentary skin disorders and for skin rejuvenation. Chemical peels are classified by the depth of action into superficial, medium, and deep peels.Various facial pigmentary conditions have significant impact on quality of life causing psychological stress, necessitating its safe and effective treatment.Aim & Objectives:To compare the efficacy of Salicylic acid, Trichloroaceticacid & Glycolic Acid in facial melanosis(melasma,photomelanosis& post acne pigmentation).To study the side effects of above mentioned peeling agents. Method and Materials:It was a randomized parallel control single blind study consisting of total of 36 cases, 12 cases each of melasma, photo melanosis and post acne pigmentation within age group 20-50 years having fitzpatrick’s skin type4. Woods lamp examination was done to confirm the type of melasma.Patients with keloidal tendency, active herpes infection or past history of hypersensitivity to salicylic acid, trichloroaceticand glycolic acid as well aspatients on systemic isotretinoin were excluded.Clinical photographs at the beginning of therapy and then serially, were taken to assess the clinical response. Prior to application a written informed consent was obtained. A post auricular test peel was performed. Patients were divided into 3 groups, containing 12 patients each of melasma, photomelanosis and post acnepigmentation.All the three peels SA peel 20% (done once in 2 weeks), GA peel 50% (done once in 3 weeks) and TCA 15% (done once in 3 weeks) were used with total six settings for each patient. Before application of peel patients were counseled to wash the face with soap and water. Then face was dried and cleaned with spirit and acetone to remove all cutaneous oils. GA, TCA, SA were applied with cotton buds/gauze withmild strokes. After a contact period off 5-10mins neutralization was done with cold water. Post peel topical sunscreen application was mandatory. MASI was used pre and post treatment to assess melasma. Investigator’s global improvement scale- overall hyperpigmentation (4-significant, 3-moderate, 2-mild, 1-minimal, 0-no change ) and Patient’s satisfaction grading scale (>70%- excellent response, 50-70%- good response,
Management of Dysphagia after Supra Glottic Laryngectomy
Background: Rehabilitation of swallowing is as vital as speech in surgically treated head and neck cancer patients to maintain nutritional support, enhance wound healing and improve quality of life. Aspiration following supraglottic laryngectomy is very common, and rehabilitation of the same is crucial which requires involvement of speech therapist in close contact with head and neck surgeon. Objectives: To examine the functions of swallowing outcomes after intensive therapy in supraglottic laryngectomy. Materials: Thirty-nine supra glottic laryngectomees were participated in the study. Of them, 36 subjects were males and 3 were females, in the age range of 32-68 years. Eighteen subjects had undergone standard supra glottis laryngectomy (Group1) for supraglottic lesions where as 21 of them for extended supraglottic laryngectomy (Group 2) for base tongue and lateral pharyngeal wall lesion. Prior to surgery visit by speech pathologist was mandatory to assess the sutability for surgery and rehabilitation. Dysphagia rehabilitation started after decannulation of tracheostoma by focusing on orientation about anatomy, physiological variation before and after surgery, which was tailor made for each individual based on their type and extent of surgery. Supraglottic diet - Soft solid with supraglottic swallow method was advocated to prevent aspiration. The success of intervention was documented as number of sessions taken to swallow different food consistency and also percentage of subjects who achieved satisfactory swallow in terms of number of weeks in both the groups. Results: Statistical data was computed in two ways in both the groups 1) to calculate percentage (%) of subjects who swallowed satisfactorily in the time frame of less than 3 weeks to more than 6 weeks, 2) number of sessions taken to swallow without aspiration as far as food consistency was concerned. The study indicated that in group 1 subjects of standard supraglottic laryngectomy, 61% (n=11) of them were successfully rehabilitated but their swallowing normalcy was delayed by an average 29th post operative day (3-6 weeks). Thirty three percentages (33%) (n=6) of the subjects could swallow satisfactorily without aspiration even before 3 weeks and only 5 % (n=1) of the needed more than 6 weeks to achieve normal swallowing ability. Group 2 subjects of extended SGL only 47 %( n=10) of them could achieved satisfactory swallow by 3-6 weeks and 24% (n=5) of them of them achieved normal swallowing ability before 3 weeks. Around 4% (n=1) needed more than 6 weeks and as high as 24 % (n=5) of them continued to be supplemented with naso gastric feeding even after 8-10 months post operative as they exhibited severe aspiration. As far as type of food consistencies were concerned group 1 subject could able to swallow all types without aspiration much earlier than group 2 subjects. Group 1 needed only 8 swallowing therapy sessions for thickened soft solid and 15 sessions for liquids whereas group 2 required 14 sessions for soft solid and 17 sessions for liquids to achieve swallowing normalcy without aspiration. Conclusion: The study highlights the importance of dysphagia intervention in supraglottic laryngectomees by speech pathologist.
Performance of the New Laboratory-Based Algorithm for HIV Diagnosis in Southwestern China
The Chinese Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CCDC) issued a new laboratory-based algorithm for HIV diagnosis on April 2016, which initially screens with a combination HIV-1/HIV-2 antigen/antibody fourth-generation immunoassay (IA) followed, when reactive, an HIV-1/HIV-2 undifferentiated antibody IA in duplicate. Reactive specimens with concordant results undergo supplemental tests with western blots, or HIV-1 nucleic acid tests (NATs) and non-reactive specimens with discordant results receive HIV-1 NATs or p24 antigen tests or 2-4 weeks follow-up tests. However, little data evaluating the application of the new algorithm have been reported to date. The study was to evaluate the performance of new laboratory-based HIV diagnostic algorithm in an inpatient population of Southwest China over the initial 6 months by compared with the old algorithm. Plasma specimens collected from inpatients from May 1, 2016, to October 31, 2016, are submitted to the laboratory for screening HIV infection performed by both the new HIV testing algorithm and the old version. The sensitivity and specificity of the algorithms and the difference of the categorized numbers of plasmas were calculated. Under the new algorithm for HIV diagnosis, 170 of the total 52 749 plasma specimens were confirmed as positively HIV-infected (0.32%). The sensitivity and specificity of the new algorithm were 100% (170/170) and 100% (52 579/52 579), respectively; while 167 HIV-1 positive specimens were identified by the old algorithm with sensitivity 98.24% (167/170) and 100% (52 579/52 579), respectively. Three acute HIV-1 infections (AHIs) and two early HIV-1 infections (EHIs) were identified by the new algorithm; the former was missed by old procedure. Compared with the old version, the new algorithm produced fewer WB-indeterminate results (2 vs. 16, p = 0.001), which led to fewer follow-up tests. Therefore, the new HIV testing algorithm is more sensitive for detecting acute HIV-1 infections with maintaining the ability to verify the established HIV-1 infections and can dramatically decrease the greater number of WB-indeterminate specimens.
Predictive Value of Hepatitis B Core-Related Antigen (HBcrAg) during Natural History of Hepatitis B Virus Infection
The natural history of HBV infection could experience immune tolerant (IT), immune clearance (IC), HBeAg-negative inactive/quienscent carrier (ENQ), and HBeAg-negative hepatitis (ENH). As current biomarkers for discriminating these four phases have some weaknesses, additional serological indicators are needed. Hepatits B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) encoded with precore/core gene contains denatured HBeAg, HBV core antigen (HBcAg) and a 22KDa precore protein (p22cr), which was demonstrated to have a close association with natural history of hepatitis B infection, but no specific cutoff values and diagnostic parameters to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy. This study aimed to clarify the distribution of HBcrAg levels and evaluate its diagnostic performance during the natural history of infection from a Western Chinese perspective. 294 samples collected from treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients in different phases (IT=64; IC=72; ENQ=100, and ENH=58). We detected the HBcrAg values and analyzed the relationship between HBcrAg and HBV DNA. HBsAg and other clinical parameters were quantitatively tested. HBcrAg levels of four phases were 9.30 log U/mL, 8.80 log U/mL, 3.00 log U/mL, and 5.10 logU/mL, respectively (p < 0.0001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that the area under curves (AUCs) of HBcrAg and quantitative HBsAg at cutoff values of 9.25 log U/mL and 4.355 log IU/mL for distinguishing IT from IC phases were 0.704 and 0.694, with sensitivity 76.39% and 59.72%, specificity 53.13% and 79.69%, respectively. AUCs of HBcrAg and quantitative HBsAg at cutoff values of 4.15 log U/mlmL and 2.395 log IU/mlmL for discriminating between ENQ and ENH phases were 0.931 and 0.653, with sensitivity 87.93% and 84%, specificity 91.38% and 39%, respectively. Therefore, HBcrAg levels varied significantly among four natural phases of HBV infection. It had higher predictive performance than quantitative HBsAg for distinguishing between ENQ-patients and ENH-patients and similar performance with HBsAg for the discrimination between IT and IC phases, which indicated that HBcrAg could be a potential serological marker for CHB.
Comparison of Analgesic Efficacy of Paracetamol and Tramadol for Pain Relief in Active Labor
Introduction: Labour pain has been described as the most severe pain experienced by women in their lives. Pain management in labour is one of the most important challenges faced by the obstetrician. The opioids are the primary treatment for patients with moderate and severe pain but these drugs are not always tolerated and are associated with dose-dependent side effects. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, too, are associated with variable adverse effects. Considering these factors, our study compared the efficacy and side effect of intravenous tramadol and paracetamol. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of an intravenous infusion of 1000 mg of paracetamol as compared with an intravenous injection of 50mg of tramadol for intrapartum analgesia. Methods: In a randomized prospective study at Pt. BDS PGIMS, 200 women in active labor were allocated to received either paracetamol (n=100) or tramadol (n=100). The primary outcome was the efficacy of the drug to supply adequate analgesia as measured by a change in the visual analog scale (VAS) pain intensity score at various times after drug administration. The secondary outcomes included the need for additional rescue analgesia and the presence of adverse maternal or fetal events. Results: The mean age of cases were 25.55 ± 3.849 years and 25.60 ± 3.655 years respectively As recorded by the VAS score, there was significant pain reduction at 30 minutes, and at 1 and 2 hours in both groups (P< 0.01). In comparison, between group I and II, a significantly higher rate of nausea and vomiting in tramadol group (14% vs 8%; P < 0.03) patients. Similarly, drowsiness (0% vs 11%; P< 0.01), dry mouth (0% vs 8%; P< 0.04) and dizziness (0% vs 9%; P< 0.02) was also significant in group II. Conclusion: Due to difficulty in administering epidural analgesia to all parturients, administration of paracetamol and tramadol infusion for analgesia is simple and less invasive alternative. In the present study, both paracetamol and tramadol were equally effective for labour analgesia but paracetamol has emerged as safe alternative as compared to tramadol due to a low incidence of side effects.
Inactivation Kinetics of DNA and RNA Viruses by Ozone-Air Mixture in a Flow Mixer
Virucidal activity of ozone is well known: dissolved in water it kill viruses very fast. The virucidal capacity of ozone in ozone-air mixture is less known. The goal of the study was to investigate the virucidal potentials of the ozone–air mixture and kinetics of virus inactivation. Materials and methods. Ozone (O3 ) was generated from oxygen with ozonizer ( 1.0 – 75.0 mg\l). The ozone concentration was determined by the spectrophotometric methods. Virus contaminated samples were placed into the flowing reactor. Viruses: poliovirus type 1, vaccine strain (Sabin) and adenovirus, type 5, were obtained from the State virus collection. Titrations of viruses were carried out in appropriate cell cultures. CxT value ( mg\l x min) was calculated. Results. Metallic, polycarbonic and fiber “Kevlar” samples were contaminated with virus, dried and treated with ozone-air mixture in the flowing reactor. Kinetics of poliovirus inactivation: in 15 min at 5.0 mg\l -2.0 lg TCID50 inhibition , in 15 min at 10 mg\l – 2.5 lg TCID50 , 4.0 lg TCID50 inactivation of poliovirus was achieved after 75min at ozone concentration 20.0mg\l (99.99%). ( CxT = 75, 150 and 1500 mg\l x min on all three types of surfaces). It was found that the inactivation of poliovirus was more effective when the virus contaminated samples were wet (in 15 min at 20mg\l inhibition of virus in dry samples was 2.0 TCID50 , in wet samples – 4.0 TCID50). Adenovirus was less resistant to ozone treatment then poliovirus: 4.0 lg TCID50 inhibition was observed after 30 min of the treatment with ozone at 20mg\l ( CxT mg\l x min = 300 for adenovirus as for poliovirus it was 1500). Conclusion. It was found that ozone-air mixture inactivates viruses at rather high concentrations (compared to the reported effect of ozone dissolved in water). Despite of that there is a difference in the resistance to ozone action between viruses – poliovirus is more resistant then adenovirus-ozone-air mixture can be used for disinfection of large rooms. The maintaining of the virus-contaminated surfaces in wet condition allow to decrease the ozone load for virus inactivation.
Efficacy and Safety of Combination Therapy in Androgenetic Alopecia: Randomized Uncontrolled Evaluator, Blind Study
Introduction: Early age of onset of baldness has marked psychological impact on personality. Combination therapies have better efficacy than monotherapy in androgenetic alopecia. Although medical, surgical treatment and cosmetic aids are available for treatment of pattern baldness, medical is first preferred the line of treatment. Although only 5% topical minoxidil is USFDA approved, 10% is available in India since 2007. Efficacy of tablet finasteride is well established in male pattern baldness. 5% topical minoxidil is effective and safe in female pattern baldness. There is a role of saw palmetto in regrowth of scalp hair. With this background research was undertaken to study efficacy and safety of topical minoxidil 10% + tab. Finesteride (1mg) + dermaroller in male pattern baldness and topical minoxidil 5% + cap. Saw palmetto (320 mg) + dermaroller in female pattern baldness. Methods and Materials: It was a randomized uncontrolled evaluator blind study consisting of total 21 patients, 15 of male pattern baldness and 6 of female pattern baldness within 20-35 yrs of age were enrolled. Male patients had Hamilton grade 2-4 MPB and females had Ludwig grade 2 FPB. Male patients were treated with Tab Finesteride 1mg once daily + 10% topical Minoxidil 1ml twice daily for 6 months. Female patients were treated with Cap. Saw palmetto 320 mg once daily + 5% topical Minoxidil twice daily for 6 months. In both male & female patients dermaroller therapy was used once in 10 days for 4 sittings followed by once in 15 days for next 5 months. Blood pressure and possible side effects were monitored in every follow up visits. Pre and post treatment photographs were taken. Assessment of hair growth was done at baseline and at the end of 6 months. Patients satisfactory grading scale and Physician assessment of hair growth scale were used to assessing the results. Trichoscan was done for assessment of hair-shaft diameter and density. Pre and post treatment photographs and Trichoscan hair growth analysis (by diameter and density) was done by physician (dermatologist) not directly involved in this study (evaluator blind). Result: This combination therapy showed moderate response in female pattern alopecia and good to excellent results in male pattern alopecia at the end of 6 months. During therapy none of the patients showed side effects like hypotension, headache and loss of libido, hirsuitism. Mild irritation due to crystal deposition was noted by 3 patients. Conclusion: Effective and early treatment using combination therapy with higher percent of Minoxidil for rapid hair growth is necessary in initial period since it will boost up the self-confidence in patients leading to better treatment compliance. Subsequent maintenance of hair growth can be done with lower concentration. No significant side effects with treatment are observed in both group of patients.
Impact of Obesity on Outcomes in Breast Reconstruction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Background: Increased rates of both breast cancer and obesity have resulted in more women seeking breast reconstruction. These women may be at increased risk for perioperative complications. A systematic review was conducted to assess the outcomes in obese women who have undergone breast reconstruction following mastectomy. Methods: Cochrane, PUBMED and EMBASE electronic databases were screened and data was extracted from included studies. The clinical outcomes assessed were surgical complications, medical complications, length of postoperative hospital stay, reoperation rate and patient satisfaction. Results: 33 studies met the inclusion criteria for the review and 29 provided enough data to be included in the meta-analysis (71368 patients, 20061 of which were obese). Obese women were 2.3 times more likely to experience surgical complications (95 percent CI 2.19 to 2.39; P < 0.00001), 2.8 times more likely to have medical complications (95 percent CI 2.41 to 3.26; P < 0.00001) and had a 1.9 times higher risk of reoperation (95 percent CI 1.75 to 2.07; P < 0.00001). The most common complication, wound dehiscence, was 2.5 times more likely in obese women (95 percent CI 1.80 to 3.52; P < 0.00001). Sensitivity analysis confirmed that obese women were more likely to experience surgical complications (RR 2.36, 95% CI 2.22–2.52; P < 0.00001). Conclusions: This study provides evidence that obesity increases the risk of complications in both implant and autologous reconstruction. Additional prospective and observational studies are needed to determine if weight reduction prior to reconstruction reduces the perioperative risks associated with obesity.
Complications Following Dermato-Surgical Procedures in a Tertiary Care Center in India: A Retrospective Analysis
Introduction: Though most of the procedures in a dermatologic surgery set up are safe, few expected and unexpected complications occur. These may range from simple vasovagal attack, urticarial reactions to more life threatening complications such as cardiac arrhythmias, anaphylaxis, and cardiorespiratory arrest. Materials and methods: Data was collected retrospectively from January 2014 to January 2017 of all the dermatosurgical procedure in a tertiary care center, which included excisions of benign and malignant conditions, hair transplantation, vitiligo surgeries, blepharoplasty, scar revision and flap surgeries. Information was collected regarding the procedure done, patient data and complications. Results: A total of 3510 surgical procedures were performed till date. Various intra and post-operative complications observed were noted. Vaso-vagal syncope was the most common complication seen in 68 patients, followed by secondary infection in 40 patients limited to superficial suppuration of surgical site infections. Other complications noted were bleeding, post-operative gaping of wound, necrosis, and hematoma. Few complications were specific to the type of surgery done. Post-operative edema and bruisings were common following blepharoplasty. Bleeding, periorbital edema, sterile folliculitis were observed following hair transplantation. Bleeding, hematoma, necrosis, gaping of wound, trap door deformity, and recurrence was seen following flap surgeries. Conclusions: Dermatosurgical procedures are associated with lower rate of complications. These complications are usually minor which resolves with appropriate pre, intra and post-operative care.
Analytical Performance of Cobas C 8000 Analyzer Based on Sigma Matriks
Introduction: Six sigma is a metric that quantifies the performance of processes as a rate of Defects-Per-Million Opportunities. Sigma methodology can be applied in chemical pathology laboratory for evaluating process performance with evidence for process improvement in quality assurance program. In the laboratory, these methods have been used to improve the timeliness of troubleshooting, reduce the cost and frequency of quality control and minimize pre and post-analytic errors. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the sigma values of the Cobas 8000 analyzer based on the minimum requirement of the specification. Methodology: The twenty-one analytes were chosen in this studies. The analytes were ALT, Alb, ALP, Amylase, AST, Bil Total, Calcium, Chloride, Cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, Creatinine, Creatinine Kinase, Glucose, LDH, Magnesium, Potassium, Protein, Sodium, Triglyceride, Acid Uric and Urea. The source of the total error was chosen from CLIA. The bias was calculated from end cycle report of RCPA cycle from July to December 2016 and coefficient variation (CV) from six months IQC. The sigma was calculated based on the formula: Sigma = (Total Error - Bias) / CV. The analytical performance was evaluated based on the sigma, sigma > 6 is world class, sigma > 5 is excellence, sigma > 4 is good and sigma < 4 is satisfactorily, sigma < 3 is more infrequence of Internal Quality Control (IQC) perform per day. Results: Based on the calculation, we found that, 96% is world class (ALT, Alb, ALP, Amylase, AST, Bil Total, Cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, Creatinine, Creatinine Kinase, Glucose, LDH, Magnesium, Potassium, Triglyceride and Acid Uric. 14% excellence (Calcium, Protein and Urea), and 10% (chloride and sodium) is more frequent of IQC perform per day. Conclusion: Based on this study, we found that only Chloride and Sodium should be performed frequently IQC to make sure that the analysis is accurate and reliable for patient management.
Validation and Usability of MEDSINC: An Integrated Mobile Health (mHealth) Software Platform for Clinical Assessment of Common Childhood Illnesses
A lack of access to healthcare professionals and limited healthcare infrastructure are the major causes for the high mortality and morbidity in children under 5 years of age in low and middle income countries. THINKMD and The Save the Children International (SCI) performed validation, usability and acceptability field studies of an integrated community health worker specific mobile health (mHealth) clinical assessment platform, MEDSINC®, for children under 5, to determine if utilization of the platform could address the shortage of healthcare professionals and limited health care infrastructure in the Rayerbazar slum area in Dhaka, Bangladesh. MEDSINC® is a simple to use, self-teaching next-generation integrated mHealth clinical assessment software platform, which enables minimally skilled users to quickly determine how sick a child is by simultaneously determining an integrated clinical severity assessment (none/mild; moderate; severe) for respiratory distress, dehydration, infection risk (sepsis-SIRS), and malnutrition. In addition, MEDSINC® also screens for possible malaria, meningitis, anemia, urinary tract infection, skin infection, measles, ear infection and dysentery. The SCI ‘Shishuder Jonno’ Maternal, Newborn, Child Health and Nutrition (MNCHN) program employed a training-of trainer’s strategy for their community organizers (COs) to use MEDSINC®. Total training time was between 1.5-2.5 hours. All children within 2-59 months of age range and residents at households within the selected slum areas were eligible to be enrolled in this study. Upon receiving informed written consent from respective caregivers/parents, the COs generated integrated clinical assessments using the MEDSINC® platform on 259 children which were correlated with blinded local physician’s clinical assessments of the same child (not by using the MEDSINC® platform). Qualitative feedback on usability and feasibility were gathered via surveys administered to all relevant stakeholders. The clinical correlation between the assessment generated by a CO using MEDSINC® and an independent clinical assessment made by a local physician examining the same child revealed 55%- over 90% clinical severity assessment correlation and over 90% overall correlation for 8 additional clinical conditions. Analysis of usability and feasibility of the MEDSINC® platform revealed very positive responses to ease of use and potential public health impact. All end users (COs) noted that MEDSINC® was easy to understand and learn, and enabled them to identify if a child was sick or not. Health professionals noted that MEDSINC® would help address important health care issues for children in their communities and assist them in reaching more patients. This field-based study has provided strong validation, usability and acceptability evidence that integration of the MEDSINC® platform into the MNCHN program has potential to significantly increase healthcare capacity of community-based health worker programs to identify the health status of children and facilitate accurate triage and initial therapeutic intervention(s) for the primary diseases leading to premature death and disability of children 2-59 months of age living in low and middle income countries. Integration of MEDSINC® into the SCI MNCHN program would help to address Rayerbazar’s most pressing child health issues, while also guiding the programs priorities through collection of real-time, geo-tagged public health and epidemiological data leading to improved allocation of limited resources.
Probabilistic Ecotoxicological Risk Assessment of Ionic Liquids
Ionic liquids (ILs) are chemical substances with good solubility and low vapor pressure because they are ionized and therefore charged. ILs may harm ecosystem due to their good water solubility. Conventional toxicological studies focus on the evaluation of toxicity (EC50/LC50/IC50/LD50) of ILs for different species for individual ILs. At present, only the limited information is available about the impacts of ILs on the environment. It is difficult to assess the ecotoxicological risks of ILs because of unavailability of exposure data. The main objective of the current research is to use statistical methods using use laboratory toxicity values (EC50) from literature to assess potential ecotoxicological risks when the ILs does come into industrial use. Probabilistic ecotoxicological risk assessment (PETRA) method was adopted by using species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) and chemical toxicity distributions (CTDs). Acute toxicity data were collected from literature data on the acute toxicity on four bacterial pathogens Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. The SSD method was applied to estimate guideline values to give specified levels of protection for bacterial species. CTDs were calculated for each of the species to obtain the 1st and 5th percentiles to get screening point values (SPVs). SPVs were divided by assessment factors of 1000 recommended by REACH guidance to get screening-predicted no-effect concentrations (SPNECs). Imidazolium ILs with chloride and bromide anions were reported to be more risky towards bacteria selected in this research. Out of the four bacterial strains, E.coli was reported to be potentially at higher risk because of highest sensitivity when exposed towards ILs.
Relationship between Joint Hypermobility and Balance in Patients with Down’s Syndrome
Down’s syndrome (DS) is a human genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of an extra chromosome 21. Many patients with DS have musculoskeletal problems that affect weak muscle tone (hypotonia) and ligament laxity. This leads to excessive joint hypermobility and decreased position sense (proprioception). Lack of proprioception may cause balance problems. The aim of our study was to investigate how does joint hypermobility affect balance in patients with DS. Our study conducted with 13 DS patients age between 18 to 40 years. Demographic data were recorded. Beighton Hypermobility Score (BHS) was used to evaluate joint hypermobility. Balance score of participants was evaluated with Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Mean age of our participants was 29,8±3,57 year. Average score of body mass index and BHS were; 33,23 ±3,78 kg/m2 and 7,61±1,04, respectively. Out of a maximum possible score of 56 on the Berg Balance Scale, scores of participants with DS ranged from 36–51, with a mean of 43±4,45. Significant correlation was found between BHS and BBS (r: -,966, p=0.00). All of our participants have 6/9 or higher grade from BHS. As a conclusion of our study; joint hypermobility may affect balance score in patients with DS. The results suggest that people with DS have worse balance scores which affected by hypermobility. Further studies need larger population for more reliable results.
Preliminary Short-Term Results of a Population of Patients Treated with Mitraclip Therapy: One Center Experience
Objectives: This retrospective analysis sought to evaluate 1-month outcomes and therapy effectiveness of a population of patients treated with MitraClip therapy. We describe in this article the preliminary results of primary effectiveness endpoint. Background: Percutaneous Mitral Repair is being developed to treat severe mitral regurgitation (MR), with increasing real-world cases of functional MR (FMR). In the EVEREST (Endovascular Valve Edge-to-Edge Repair Study)II trial, the percutaneous device showed superior safety but less reduction in MR at 1year. 4-year outcomes from EVEREST II trial showed no difference in the prevalence of moderate-severe and severe MR or mortality at 4years between surgical mitral repair and percutaneous approach. Methods: We analysed retrospectively collected data from one center experience in Italy enrolled from January 2011 to December 2016. The study included 62 patients [mean age 74±11years, 43 men (69%)] with MR of at least grade3+. Most of the patients had functional MR, were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class III or IV, with a large portion (78%) of mild-to-moderate Tricuspid Regurgitation (TR). One or more clips were implanted in 67 procedures (62 patients). Results and Conclusions: Severity of MR was reduced in all successfully treated patients,54(90%) were discharged with MR≤2+ (primary effectiveness endpoint). Clinical 1-month follow-up data showed an improvement in NYHA functional class (42 patients (70%) in NYHA class I-II). 60 of 62 (97 %) successfully treated patients were free from death and mitral valve surgery at 1-month follow-up. MitraClip therapy reduces functional MR with acute MR reduction to
The Role of Uterine Artery Embolization in the Management of Postpartum Hemorrhage
As an emerging alternative to hysterectomy, uterine artery embolization (UAE) has been widely used in the management of fibroids and in controlling postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) unresponsive to other therapies. Research has shown UAE to be a safe, minimally invasive procedure with few complications and minimal effects on future fertility. We present two cases highlighting the use of UAE in preventing PPH in a patient with a large fibroid at the time of cesarean section and in the treatment of secondary PPH refractory to other therapies in another patient. We present a 36-year primiparous woman who booked at 18+6 weeks gestation with a 13.7 cm subserosal fibroid at the lower anterior wall of the uterus near the cervix and a 10.8 cm subserosal fibroid in the left wall. Prophylactic internal iliac artery occlusion balloons were placed prior to the planned classical midline cesarean section. The balloons were inflated once the baby was delivered. Bilateral uterine arteries were embolized subsequently. The estimated blood loss (EBL) was 400 mls and hemoglobin (Hb) remained stable at 10 g/DL. Ultrasound scan 2 years postnatally showed stable uterine fibroids 10.4 and 7.1 cm, which was significantly smaller than before. We present the second case of a 40-year-old G2P1 with a previous cesarean section for failure to progress. There were no antenatal problems, and the placenta was not previa. She presented with term labour and underwent an emergency cesarean section for failed vaginal birth after cesarean. Intraoperatively extensive adhesions were noted with bladder drawn high, and EBL was 300 mls. Postpartum recovery was uneventful. She presented with secondary PPH 3 weeks later complicated by hypovolemic shock. She underwent an emergency examination under anesthesia and evacuation of the uterus, with EBL 2500mls. Histology showed decidua with chronic inflammation. She was discharged well with no further PPH. She subsequently returned one week later for secondary PPH. Bedside ultrasound showed that the endometrium was thin with no evidence of retained products of conception. Uterotonics were administered, and examination under anesthesia was performed, with uterine Bakri balloon and vaginal pack insertion after. EBL was 1000 mls. There was no definite cause of PPH with no uterine atony or products of conception. To evaluate a potential cause, pelvic angiogram and super selective left uterine arteriogram was performed which showed profuse contrast extravasation and acute bleeding from the left uterine artery. Superselective embolization of the left uterine artery was performed. No gross contrast extravasation from the right uterine artery was seen. These two cases demonstrated the superior efficacy of UAE. Firstly, the prophylactic use of intra-arterial balloon catheters in pregnant patients with large fibroids, and secondly, in the diagnosis and management of secondary PPH refractory to uterotonics and uterine tamponade. In both cases, the need for laparotomy hysterectomy was avoided, resulting in the preservation of future fertility. UAE should be a consideration for hemodynamically stable patients in centres with access to interventional radiology.
Tuberculosis in Patients with HIV-Infection in Russia: Cohort Study over the Period of 2015-2016 Years
Tuberculosis (TB) associated with HIV is one of the top causes of death worldwide. However, early detection and treatment of TB in HIV-infected individuals significantly reduces the risk of developing severe forms of TB and mortality. The goal of the study was to analyze the peculiarities of TB associated with HIV infection. Over the period of 2015-2016 a retrospective cohort study was conducted among 377 patients with TB/HIV co-infection who attended the Moscow Tuberculosis Clinic. The majority of the patients was male (64,5%). The median age was: men 37,9 (24÷62) and women 35,4 (22÷72) years. The most prevalent age group was 30-39 years both for men and women (73,3% and 54,7%, respectively). The ratio of patients in age group 50-59 and senior was 3,9%. Socioeconomic status of patients was rather low: only 2.3% of patients had a university degree; 76,1% was unemployed (of whom 21,7% were disabled). Most patients had disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis in the phase of infiltration/ decay (41,5%). The infiltrative TB was detected in 18,9% of patients; 20,1% patients had tuberculosis of intrathoracic lymph nodes. The occurrence of MDR-TB was 16,8% and XDR-TB – 17,9%. The number of HIV-positive patients with newly diagnosed TB was n=261(69,2%). The active TB-form (MbT+) among new TB/HIV cases was 44,7 %. The severe clinical forms of TB and a high TB incidence rate among HIV-infected individuals alongside with a large number of cases of newly diagnosed tuberculosis, indicate the need for more intense interaction with TB services for timely diagnosis of TB which will optimize treatment outcomes.
Aerobic Capacity Outcomes after an Aerobic Exercise Program with an Upper Body Ergometer in Diabetic Amputees
Introduction: Amputation comes from a series of complications in diabetic persons; at that point, of the illness evolution they have a deplored aerobic capacity. Adding to that, cardiac rehabs programs are almost base in several activities in a standing position. The cardiac rehabilitation programs have to improve for them, based on scientific advice. Objective: Evaluation of aerobic capacity of diabetic amputee after an aerobic exercise program, with upper limb ergometer. Methodology: The design is longitudinal, prospective, comparative and no randomized. We include all diabetic pelvic limb amputees, who assist to the cardiac rehabilitation. We made 2 groups: an experimental and a control group. The patients did the exercise testing, with the author’s design protocol. The experimental group completed 24 exercise sessions (3 sessions/week), with an intensity determined with the training heart rate. At the end of 8 weeks period, the subjects did a second exercise test. Results: Both groups were a homogeneous sample in age (experimental n=15) 57.6+12.5 years old and (control n=8) 52.5+8.0 years old, sex, occupation, education and economic features. (square chi) (p=0.28). The initial aerobic capacity was similar in both groups. And the aerobic capacity accomplishes after the program was statistically greater in the experimental group than in the control one. The final media VO2peak (mlO2/kg/min) was experimental (17.1+3.8), control (10.5+3.8), p=0.001. (t student). Conclusions: The aerobic capacity improved after an arm ergometer exercise program and the quality of life improve too, in diabetic amputees. So this program is fundamental in diabetic amputee’s rehabilitation management.
Research and Design on Portable Intravehicular Ultrasonic Leak Detector for Manned Spacecraft
Based on gas jet sound theory, the mechanism of air leaking from spacecraft to produce sound, sound transmitting and signal detecting Intravehicular has been analyzed. A formula of the sound power, leak size and air pressure in the spacecraft has been built, and the relationship between leak sound pressure and receiving direction and distance has been studied. The center frequency in millimeter diameter leak is more than 20 kHz. The situation of air leaking from spacecraft to space has been simulated and an experiment of different leak size and testing distance and direction has been done. The sound pressure is in direct proportion to the cosine of the angle of leak to sensor. The portable ultrasonic leak detector has been developed, whose minimal leak rate is 10-1Pam3s-1. The accuracy of distance for locating the leaks is less than 20 mm, the mass is 1.2kg, and the electric power is less than 2.2W.
Evaluation of Non-Pharmacological Method-Transcervical Foley Catheter and Misoprostol to Intravaginal Misoprostol for Preinduction Cervical Ripening
Induction of labour is a common obstetrical intervention. Around 1 in every 4 patient undergo induction of labour for different indications Purpose: To study the efficacy of the combination of Foley bulb and vaginal misoprostol in comparison to vaginal misoprostol alone for cervical ripening and induction of labour. Methods: A prospective randomised study was conducted on 150 patients with term singleton pregnancy admitted for induction of labour. Seventy-five patients were induced with both Foley bulb, and vaginal misoprostol and another 75 were given vaginal misoprostol alone for induction of labour. Both groups were then compared with respect to change in Bishop score, induction to the active phase of labour interval, induction delivery interval, duration of labour, maternal complications and neonatal outcomes. Data was analysed using statistical software SPSS version 11.5. Tests with P,.05 were considered significant. Results: The two groups were comparable with respect to maternal age, parity, gestational age, indication for induction, and initial Bishop scores. Both groups had a significant change in Bishop score (2.99 ± 1.72 and 2.17 ± 1.48 respectively with statistically significant difference (p=0.001 S, 95% C.I. -0.1978 to 0.8378). Mean induction to delivery interval was significantly lower in the combination group (11.76 ± 5.89 hours) than misoprostol group (14.54 ± 7.32 hours). Difference was of 2.78 hours (p=0.018,S, 95% CI -5.1042 to -0.4558). Induction to delivery interval was significantly lower in nulliparous women of combination group (13.64 ± 5.75 hours) than misoprostol group (18.4±7.09 hours), and the difference was of 4.76 hours (p=0.002, S, 95% CI 1.0465 to 14.7335). There was no difference between the groups in the mode of delivery, infant weight, Apgar score and intrapartum complications. Conclusion: From the present study it was concluded that addition of Foley catheter to vaginal misoprostol have the synergistic effect and results in early cervical ripening and delivery. These results suggest that the combination may be used to achieve timely and safe delivery in the presence of an unfavorable cervix. A combination of the Foley bulb and vaginal misoprostol resulted in a shorter induction-to-delivery time when compared with vaginal misoprostol alone without increasing labor complications.
Federal University of Espirito Santo
The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of sexual life of women with diagnosed gynecological cancer and receive treatment. The study was a descriptive and cross-sectional type, and it was carried out with 276 women. Information Form and Sexual Quality of Life Scale-Female (SQOL) form was used in the study. The data was evaluated using Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis test. In the study, Sexual Quality of Life Scale-Female average score was 68.83 ± 21.17. The %43.1 of women was endometrial cancer, %30.8 was cervical cancer, %24.6 was ovarian cancer, and %1.4 was vulvar cancer. The average time to diagnosis of patients is 41.80 ± 47.64 months. There was no significant difference mean SQOL according to individual/sociodemographic characteristics like age, education. Gynecological cancer-related characteristics like gynaecological cancer type, treatment type, surgery type were found not to affect the mean score of SQOL. However, it was found that the difference was due to the higher SQOL score in the group with a diagnosis time of 25 months and over (X²KW= 6.356, p= 0.046). The reason of significant difference means SQOL according to diagnosis over time might be that women adapted to cancer diagnosis. While women with gynaecologic cancer are evaluating their sexual lives, it is necessary to evaluate them with good evaluation tools.
Novel Molecular Mechanisms Involved in Macrophage Phenotypic Polarization
Macrophages polarize to proinflammatory M1 or anti-inflammatory M2 states with distinct physiological functions. This transition within the M1 to M2 phenotypes decides the nature, duration, and severity of an inflammatory response. However, inspite of a substantial understanding of the fate of these phenotypes, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. We have investigated the role of Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS1) mediated regulation of Activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcription factor in macrophages as a critical effector of macrophage phenotypic change. Activator protein 1 (AP-1) is a group of dimeric transcription factors composed of jun, Fos, and ATF family proteins. We determined that NOS1-derived nitric oxide (NO) facilitate Fos and jun interaction which induces IL12 & IL23 expression. Pharmacological inhibition of NOS1 inhibits Fos and jun interaction but increases ATF2 and Fos dimerization. Switching of Fos and jun dimer to ATF2 and jun dimerization switches phenotype from IL–12high IL-23high IL-10low to IL–12low IL-23lowIL-10high phenotype, respectively. Together, these findings highlight a key role of the TLR4-NOS1-AP1 signaling axis in regulating macrophage polarization.
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) Knowledge Levels of Pregnant Women with GDM and Affecting Factors
The aim of the study is to determine the knowledge level of pregnant women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) about the disease and affecting factors. The data of this descriptive study were collected from 184 pregnant women who were followed up in Dokuz Eylul University Hospital (n=34), Izmir Ege Maternity Hospital, Gynecology Training and Research Hospital (n=133), and Egepol Private Hospital (n=17). Data collection forms were prepared by the researcher according to the literature. ANOVA test, Kruskal Wallis test, Mann-Whitney U test, Student’s t-test, and Pearson correlation test were used for statistical analyses. Average GDM knowledge score of pregnant women was 40.10±19.56. The GDM knowledge scores were affected by factors such as age, educational level, working status, income status, educational level of the spouse, and the GDM background. It has been shown in our study that the GDM knowledge scores were negatively affected by factors such as young age, low educational level, low-income level, unemployment, having a spouse with low educational level, the absence of the GDM story. It has been identified that 86.4% of the pregnant women were trained about GDM. The education provided in the antenatal period significantly increased GDM knowledge scores of pregnant women (p=0.000, U=515.0). It has been determined that GDM knowledge of the pregnant women with GDM is affected by various factors. These factors must be considered in order to determine new strategies.
Assessment of Escherichia coli along Nakibiso Stream in Mbale Municipality, Uganda
The aim of this study was to assess the level of microbial pollution along Nakibiso stream. The study was carried out in polluted waters of Nakibiso stream, originating from Mbale municipality and running through ADRA Estates to Namatala Wetlands in Eastern Uganda. Four sites along the stream were selected basing on the activities of their vicinity. A total of 120 samples were collected in sterile bottles from the four sampling locations of the stream during the wet and dry seasons of the year 2011. The samples were taken to the National water and Sewerage Cooperation Laboratory for Analysis. Membrane filter technique was used to test for Erischerichia coli. Nitrogen, Phosphorus, pH, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, total suspended solids, turbidity and temperature were also measured. Results for Nitrogen and Phosphorus for sites; 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 1.8, 8.8, 7.7 and 13.8 NH4-N mg/L; and 1.8, 2.1, 1.8 and 2.3 PO4-P mg/L respectively. Basing on these results, it was estimated that farmers use 115 and 24 Kg/acre of Nitrogen and Phosphorus respectively per month. Taking results for Nitrogen, the same amount of Nutrients in artificial fertilizers would cost $ 88. This shows that reuse of wastewater has a potential in terms of nutrients. The results for E. coli for sites 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 1.1 X 107, 9.1 X 105, 7.4 X 105, and 3.4 X 105 respectively. E. coli hence decreased downstream with statistically significant variations between sites 1 and 4. Site 1 had the highest mean E.coli counts. The bacterial contamination was significantly higher during the dry season when more water was needed for irrigation. Although the water had the potential for reuse in farming, bacterial contamination during both seasons was higher than 103 FC/100ml recommended by WHO for unrestricted Agriculture.
A Retrospective Study on the Spectrum of Infection and Emerging Antimicrobial Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
People with diabetes mellitus are more susceptible to developing infections, as high blood sugar levels can weaken the patient's immune system defences. People with diabetes are more adversely affected when they get an infection than someone without the disease, because you have weakened immune defences in diabetes. People who have minimally elevated blood sugar levels experience worse outcomes with infections. Diabetic patients in hospitals do not necessarily have a higher mortality rate due to infections, but they do face longer hospitalisation and recovery times. A study was done in a tertiary care unit in eastern India. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus infection were recruited in the study. A total of 520 cases of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus were recorded out of which 200 infectious cases was included in the study. All subjects underwent detailed history & clinical examination. Microbiological samples were collected from respective site of the infection for microbial culture and antibiotic sensitivity test. Out of the 200 infectious cases urinary tract infection(UTI) was found in majority of the cases followed by diabetic foot ulcer (DFU), respiratory tract infection(RTI) and sepsis. It was observed that Escherichia coli was the most commonest pathogen isolated from UTI cases and Staphylococcus aureus was predominant in foot ulcers followed by other organisms. Klebsiella pneumonia was the major organism isolated from RTI and Enterobacter aerogenes was commonly observed in patients with sepsis. Isolated bacteria showed differential sensitivity pattern against commonly used antibiotics. The majority of the isolates were resistant to several antibiotics that are usually prescribed on an empirical basis. These observations are important, especially for patient management and the development of antibiotic treatment guidelines. It is recommended that diabetic patients receive pneumococcal and influenza vaccine annually to reduce morbidity and mortality. Appropriate usage of antibiotics based on local antibiogram pattern can certainly help the clinician in reducing the burden of infections.
Contribution of NLRP3 Inflammasome to the Protective Effect of 5,14-HEDGE, A 20-HETE Mimetic, against LPS-Induced Septic Shock in Rats
We hypothesized that 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) mimetics such as N-(20-hydroxyeicosa-5[Z],14[Z]-dienoyl)glycine (5,14-HEDGE) may be beneficial for preventing mortality due to inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This study aims to assess the effect of 5,14-HEDGE on the LPS-induced changes in nucleotide binding domain and leucine-rich repeat protein 3 (NLRP3)/apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase activation and recruitment domain (ASC)/pro-caspase-1 inflammasome. Rats were injected with saline (4 ml/kg) or LPS (10 mg/kg) at time 0. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured using a tail-cuff device. 5,14-HEDGE (30 mg/kg) was administered to rats 1 h after injection of saline or LPS. The rats were sacrificed 4 h after saline or LPS injection and kidney, heart, thoracic aorta, and superior mesenteric artery were isolated for measurement of caspase-1/11 p20, NLRP3, ASC, and β-actin proteins as well as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels. Blood pressure decreased by 33 mmHg and heart rate increased by 63 bpm in the LPS-treated rats. In the LPS-treated rats, tissue protein expression of caspase-1/11 p20, NLRP3, and ASC in addition to IL-1β levels were increased. 5,14-HEDGE prevented the LPS-induced changes. Our findings suggest that inhibition of renal, cardiac, and vascular formation/activity of NLRP3/ASC/pro-caspase-1 inflammasome involved in the protective effect of 5,14-HEDGE on LPS-induced septic shock in rats. This work was financially supported by the Mersin University (2015-AP3-1343) and USPHS NIH (PO1 HL034300).
Protective Effect of Bexarotene, A Selective RXRα Agonist, against Hypotension associated with Inflammation and Tissue Injury Linked to Decreased Circulating iNOS Levels in A Rat Model of Septic Shock
We hypothesized that rexinoids such as bexarotene, a selective retinoid X receptor α (RXRα) agonist, may be beneficial for preventing mortality due to inflammation associated with increased expression/activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Therefore, we investigated effects of bexarotene on the changes in circulating protein levels of iNOS (an index for systemic iNOS expression), myeloperoxidase (MPO) (an index for systemic inflammation), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (an index for systemic tissue injury) in LPS-induced systemic inflammation model resulting in septic shock in rats. Rats were injected with saline (4 ml/kg; i.p.), LPS (10 mg/kg; i.p.), dimethylsulphoxide (4 ml/kg, 0.1%; i.p.) at time 0. Mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were measured using a tail-cuff device. Bexarotene (0.03, 0.1, 0.3, and 1 mg/kg; s.c.) was administered to separate groups of rats 1 h after injection of saline or LPS. The rats were sacrificed 4 h after saline or LPS injection and blood was collected for measurement of serum iNOS, MPO, and LDH protein levels. Blood pressure decreased by 31 mmHg and heart rate increased by 63 bpm in the LPS-treated rats. In the LPS-treated rats, serum iNOS, MPO, and LDH protein levels were increased. Bexarotene only at 0.1 mg/kg dose prevented the LPS-induced hypotension and increased in iNOS, MPO, and LDH protein levels. These data are consistent with the view that a decrease in systemic iNOS levels contributes to the beneficial effect of bexarotene to prevent the hypotension associated with inflammation and tissue injury during rat endotoxemia. [This work was financially supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (SBAG-109S121)].
Approaching a Tat-Rev Independent HIV-1 Clone towards a Model for Research
Introduction: Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) is responsible for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a leading cause of death worldwide infecting millions of people each year. Despite intensive research in vaccine development, therapies against HIV-1 infection are not curative, and the huge genetic variability of HIV-1 challenges to drug development. Current animal models for HIV-1 research present important limitations, impairing the progress of in vivo approaches. Macaques require a CD8+ depletion to progress to AIDS, and the maintenance cost is high. Mice are a cheaper alternative but need to be 'humanized,' and breeding is not possible. The development of an HIV-1 clone able to replicate in mice is a challenging proposal. The lack of human co-factors in mice impedes the function of the HIV-1 accessory proteins, Tat and Rev, hampering HIV-1 replication. However, Tat and Rev function can be replaced by constitutive/chimeric promoters, codon-optimized proteins and the constitutive transport element (CTE), generating a novel HIV-1 clone able to replicate in mice without disrupting the amino acid sequence of the virus. By minimally manipulating the genomic 'identity' of the virus, we propose the generation of an HIV-1 clone able to replicate in mice to assist in antiviral drug development. Methods: i) Plasmid construction: The chimeric promoters and CTE copies were cloned by PCR using lentiviral vectors as templates (pCGSW and pSIV-MPCG). Tat mutants were generated from replication competent HIV-1 plasmids (NHG and NL4-3). ii) Infectivity assays: Retroviral vectors were generated by transfection of human 293T cells and murine NIH 3T3 cells. Virus titre was determined by flow cytometry measuring GFP expression. Human B-cells (AA-2) and Hela cells (TZMbl) were used for infectivity assays. iii) Protein analysis: Tat protein expression was determined by TZMbl assay and HIV-1 capsid by western blot. Results: We have determined that NIH 3T3 cells are able to generate HIV-1 particles. However, they are not infectious, and further analysis needs to be performed. Codon-optimized HIV-1 constructs are efficiently made in 293T cells in a Tat and Rev independent manner and capable of packaging a competent genome in trans. CSGW is capable of generating infectious particles in the absence of Tat and Rev in human cells when 4 copies of the CTE are placed preceding the 3’LTR. HIV-1 Tat mutant clones encoding different promoters are functional during the first cycle of replication when Tat is added in trans. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the development of an HIV-1 Tat-Rev independent clone is challenging but achievable aim. However, further investigations need to be developed prior presenting our HIV-1 clone as a candidate model for research.
Reaching the Goals of Routine HIV Screening Programs: Quantifying and Implementing an Effective HIV Screening System in Northern Nigeria Facilities Based on Optimal Volume Analysis
Objective: Routine HIV screening has been promoted as an essential component of efforts to reduce incidence, morbidity, and mortality. The objectives of this study were to identify the optimal annual volume needed to realize the public health goals of HIV screening in the AIDS Healthcare Foundation supported hospitals and establish an implementation process to realize that optimal annual volume. Methods: Starting in 2011 a program was established to routinize HIV screening within communities and government hospitals. In 2016 Five-years of HIV screening data were reviewed to identify the optimal annual proportions of age-eligible patients screened to realize the public health goals of reducing new diagnoses and ending late-stage diagnosis (tracked as concurrent HIV/AIDS diagnosis). Analysis demonstrated that rates of new diagnoses level off when 42% of age-eligible patients were screened, providing a baseline for routine screening efforts; and concurrent HIV/AIDS diagnoses reached statistical zero at screening rates of 70%. Annual facility based targets were re-structured to meet these new target volumes. Restructuring efforts focused on right-sizing HIV screening programs to align and transition programs to integrated HIV screening within standard medical care and treatment. Results: Over one million patients were screened for HIV during the five years; 16, 033 new HIV diagnoses and access to care and treatment made successfully for 82 % (13,206), and concurrent diagnosis rates went from 32.26% to 25.27%. While screening rates increased by 104.7% over the 5-years, volume analysis demonstrated that rates need to further increase by 62.52% to reach desired 20% baseline and more than double to reach optimal annual screening volume. In 2011 facility targets for HIV screening were increased to reflect volume analysis, and in that third year, 12 of the 19 facilities reached or exceeded new baseline targets. Conclusions and Recommendation: Quantifying targets against routine HIV screening goals identified optimal annual screening volume and allowed facilities to scale their program size and allocate resources accordingly. The program transitioned from utilizing non-evidence based annual volume increases to establishing annual targets based on optimal volume analysis. This has allowed efforts to be evaluated on the ability to realize quantified goals related to the public health value of HIV screening. Optimal volume analysis helps to determine the size of an HIV screening program. It is a public health tool, not a tool to determine if an individual patient should receive screening.
Factors Affecting the Uptake of Modern Contraception Services in Oyo State, Nigeria
Contraception has proven to be an effective way of controlling fertility and spacing births. Studies have shown that contraception can avert the high-risk pregnancies and consequently reduce maternal deaths up to 32%. Uptake of modern contraception is promoted as a mechanism to address the reproductive health needs of men and women, as well as the crucial challenge of rapid population increase. A cross- sectional descriptive study using a two- stage systematic sampling technique was used to select 530 women of reproductive age out of 20,000 households. Respondents were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Knowledge was assessed on a 5 point score in which a score of ≤ 2 rated poor while perception was scored on 36 points score in which a score of ≤ 18 was rated low. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and logistic regression at p< 0.05. There were 530 respondents. Age of respondents was 30.3 ±7.8 years, and 73.0% were married. About 90% had good knowledge of contraception while 60.8% had used contraceptives. The commonest source of information about contraception was mass media (72.8%). Minority (26.1%) obtained husbands approval before using contraceptive while 20.0% had used modern contraceptives before the first birth. Many (54.5%) of the respondents agreed that contraception helps in improving standard of living and 64.7% had good perception about contraception. Factors that hindered effective uptake of contraception services included poor service provider’s attitude (33.3%) and congestion at the service centers (4.5%). Respondents with nonuse of contraceptive before first birth are less likely to subsequently use contraceptives (OR= 0.324, 95% CI= 0.1-0.5). Husband approval of contraceptives use was the major determinant of women’s contraceptive use (OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.3-8.7). Respondents who had family planning centers not more than 5 kilometers walking distance to their residence did not significantly use contraception services (41.5%) more than 21.1% of those who had to take means of transportation to the service venues. This study showed that majority of the respondents were knowledgeable and aware of contraception services, but husband’s agreement on the use of modern contraceptives remains poor. Programmes that enhances husbands approval of modern contraception is thus recommended.