Preparing Undergraduate Nursing and Midwifery Students for Culturally Competent Health Care: A Qualitative Study
Engendering cultural competence in nursing and midwifery students is germane to reducing disparities in contemporary health care settings, increasingly patronized by people from diverse background. Professional standards for registration in Australia require nurses and midwives to be culturally competent. Nursing and midwifery academics worldwide are responsible for preparing students for clinical practice, yet limited attention is paid to exploring how students are being prepared to care for a culturally diverse population. This paper provides insight into the perceptions of academics about how they are preparing undergraduate nursing and midwifery students for culturally competent health care. Academics were drawn from a tertiary educational institution in metropolitan Australia. They responded to a generic email indicating their interest in participating in the study. A total of nine academics who have taught undergraduate nursing and midwifery students in a unit that focused on health and illness perspectives for culturally diverse communities; and provided written consent to participate were included. These academics were engaged in a qualitative digitally-recorded semi-structured face-to-face or telephone interviews which lasted for about 45-60 minutes. Interview data were transcribed verbatim. Through constant comparison, three themes emerged: experiences of the teachers, strategies used for preparing students and challenges in preparing students. The participants spoke about their experiences of teaching in the unit and with the students. They faced challenges related to physical and relational space. They utilised a number of didactic approaches in teaching the unit and critiqued the adequacy of the content in preparing students for practice. This study demonstrated that didactic classroom approaches need to be supported with clinical practice and cultural immersion for a meaningful preparation of nursing and midwifery students to care for culturally diverse populations.
Exploration of Bullying Perceptions in Adolescents in Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan Negeri 1 Manado
Background: Bullying becomes one of the problems that concern the world of education, especially in adolescents, which has a negative impact on learning achievement, psychology, and physical health. The psychological impact is shame, depression, distress, fear, sadness, and anxiety, so that if prolonged leave can lead to depression in the victim. While the impact on physical health in the form of bruises on the hit area, blisters, swelling and in more severe cases will lead to death. Objectives: This study aims to explore the perception of bullying in adolescent students Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan (SMK) Negeri 1 Manado and the people associated with that adolescent students. Methods: This research uses descriptive qualitative research design and using thematic analysis, and supported by Urie Bronfenbrenner Ecological Framework. The data collection that will be used is by in-depth interview. Sampling using purposive sampling and snowball techniques. This research was conducted at SMK Negeri 1 Manado. Result: From the analysis obtained three themes with the categories: 1) the perception of bullying with categories are: Understanding of Bullying and The Impact of Bullying, 2) the originator of bullying with categories are: Fulfillment of Youth Development Tasks and Needs, Peers Influence, and Family Communication; 3) the effort to handle bullying with categories are: the Individual Coping and Teacher Role. Conclusion: This research get three themes, those are perception of bullying, bullying’s originator and the effort of handling bullying.
Patient Engagement in Healthcare and Health Literacy in China: A Survey in China
Objective: It’s increasing acknowledged that patient engagement in healthcare and health literacy both have positive impact on patient outcome. Health literacy emphasizes the ability of individuals to understand and apply health information and manage health. Patients' health literacy affected their willingness to participate in decision-making, but its impact on the behavior and willingness of patient engagement in healthcare is not clear, especially in China. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the correlation between the behavior and willingness of patient engagement and health literacy. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was employed using the behavior and willingness of patient engagement in healthcare questionnaire, Chinese version All Aspects of Health Literacy Scale (AAHLS). A convenient sample of 443 patients was recruited from 8 general hospitals in Shanghai, Jiangsu Province and Zhejiang Province, from September 2016 to January 2017. Results: The mean score for the willingness was (4.41±0.45), and the mean score for the patient engagement behavior was (4.17±0.49); the mean score for the patient's health literacy was (2.36±0.29)，the average score of its three dimensions- the functional literacy, the Communicative/interactive literacy and the Critical literacy, was (2.26±0.38), (2.28±0.42), and (2.61±0.43), respectively. Patients' health literacy was positively correlated with their willingness of engagement (r = 0.367, P < 0.01), and positively correlated with patient engagement behavior (r = 0.357, P < 0.01). All dimensions of health literacy were positively correlated with the behavior and willingness of patient engagement in healthcare; the dimension of Communicative/interactive literacy (r = 0.312, P < 0.01; r = 0.357, P < 0.01) and the Critical literacy (r = 0.357, P < 0.01; r = 0.357, P < 0.01) are more relevant to the behavior and willingness than the dimension of basic/functional literacy (r=0.150, P < 0.01; r = 0.150, P < 0.01). Conclusions: The behavior and willingness of patient engagement in healthcare are positively correlated with health literacy and its dimensions. In clinical work, medical staff should pay attention to patients’ health literacy, especially the situation that low literacy leads to low participation and provide health information to patients through health education or communication to improve their health literacy as well as guide them to actively and rationally participate in their own health care.
The Doctor-Patient Interaction Experience Hierarchy Using Rasch Measurement Model Analysis
Effective doctor-patient interaction is vital to both doctor and patient relationship. It is the cornerstone of good practice and an integral quality of a healthcare institution. This paper presented the hierarchy of the communication elements in doctor-patient interaction during medical consultations in a medical centre in Malaysia. This study adapted The Picker Patient Experience Questionnaire (2002) to obtain the information from patients. The questionnaire survey was responded by 100 patients between the ages of 20 and 50. Data collected were analysed using Rasch Measurement Model to yield the hierarchy of the communication elements in doctor-patient interaction. The findings showed that the three highest ranking on the doctor-patient interaction were doctor’s treatment, important information delivery and patient satisfaction of doctor’s responses. The results are valuable in developing the framework for communication ethics of doctors.
Case Study of Sexual Violence Victim Assessment in Semarang Regency
Background: Sexual violence is one of the violence with high incidence in Indonesia. Purpose: This research aims to describe the implementation of sexual violence victim assessment in Semarang Regency. Method: This research is a qualitative research with embeded single case study design. Data is analized with two units of analysis. The first unit of analysis is victim’s examiner with minimum one year of work experience. Semi-structured interview method is used to obtain the data. The second unit of analysis is document related. The data is taken by observing the pathway and description of every document and how it supported each implementation of assessment. Results: This study is resulted with three themes, which are: The first theme is assessments of sexual violence in Semarang regency has been standardized. The laws of the Republic of Indonesia have regulated the handling of victims of sexual violence in outline. Victims of sexual violence can be dealt with by the police, the Integrated Service Center for Women and Children Empowerment and the Regional General Hospital. Each examination site has different operational procedures standards for dealing with victims of sexual violence. Cooperation with family and witnesses is also required in the review process to obtain accurate results and evidence; The second idea that resulted from this study is there are inhibits factors in the assessments process. Victims sometimes feel embarrassed and reluctant to recount the chronological events during reporting. The examining officer should be able to approach and build a trust to convince the victim to be able to cooperate. The third theme is there are other things to consider in the process of assessing victims of sexual violence. Ensuring implementation in accordance with applicable operational procedures standards, providing exclusive examination rooms, counseling and safeguarding the privacy of victims are important to be considered in the assessment.
Changes in Blood Pressure in a Longitudinal Cohort of Vietnamese Women
This study aims to study longitudinal changes in blood pressure (BP) during the 1-year postpartum period and to evaluate the influence of parity, maternal age at delivery, prepregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, gestational age at delivery and postpartum maternal weight. A prospective longitudinal cohort study of 883 singleton Vietnamese women was conducted in Hanoi, Haiphong, and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam during 2015-2017. Women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus at 24-28 weeks of gestation, pre-eclampsia, and hypoglycemia was excluded from analysis. BP was repeatedly measured at discharge, 6 and 12 months postpartum using automatic blood pressure monitors. Linear mixed model with repeated measures was used to describe changes occurring during pregnancy to 1-year postpartum. Parity, self-reported prepregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, maternal age and gestational age at delivery will be treated as time-invariant variables and measured maternal weight will be treated as a time-varying variable in models. Women with higher measured postpartum weight had higher mean systolic blood pressure (SBP), 0.20 mmHg, 95% CI [0.12, 0.28]. Similarly, women with higher measured postpartum weight had higher mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP), 0.15 mmHg, 95% CI [0.08, 0.23]. These differences were both statistically significant, P < 0.001. There were no differences in SBP and DBP depending on parity, maternal age at delivery, prepregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain and gestational age at delivery. Compared with discharge measurement, SBP was significantly higher in 6 months postpartum, 6.91 mmHg, 95% CI [6.22, 7.59], and 12 months postpartum, 6.39 mmHg, 95% CI [5.64, 7.15]. Similarly, DBP was also significantly higher in 6 and months postpartum than at discharge, 10.46 mmHg 95% CI [9.75, 11.17], and 11.33 mmHg 95% CI [10.54, 12.12]. In conclusion, BP measured repeatedly during the postpartum period (6 and 12 months postpartum) showed a statistically significant increase, compared with after discharge from the hospital. Maternal weight was a significant predictor of postpartum blood pressure over the 1-year postpartum period.
Raising Awareness to Health Professionals about Emotional Needs of Families Suffering Perinatal Loss through a Short Documentary
The loss of a child during pregnancy, or shortly after birth, is not a common occurrence, but it is a prevalent fact in our society. When this loss happens, life and death walk together. The grief that parents experience following a perinatal loss is a devastating experience. Professionals are aware that the quality of care offered during this first period is crucial to support the families experiencing a perinatal loss and meet their needs. However, it is not always easy for the health care professionals to know what to say and what to do in these difficult circumstances. Given the complexity of the Health, painful process that a family must face when is affected by such loss, we believe that the creation of a protocol that pays special attention to the emotional needs of those couples can be a very valuable tool for the professionals. The short documentary named ‘When the illusion vanished’ was created as part of the material of this protocol, which focuses on the emotional needs of the families who have suffered a perinatal loss. This video is designed to see what impact has a perinatal death and to raise awareness among professionals working in this field. The methodology is based on interviews with couples who have experienced perinatal death and to professionals who accompany families suffering from perinatal loss. The use of sensitive and empathized words, being encouraged to express feelings, respect the time, appropriate training for the professionals are some of the issues reflected in this documentary. We believe that this video has contributed to help health care professionals to empathize and understand the need to be able to accompany these families with the appropriate care, respectful, empathetic attitude and professionalism so that they can start the path to a ‘healthy’ mourning.
Relationship between Demographic Characteristics and Lifestyle among Indonesian Pregnant Women with Hypertension
Background: Hypertension in pregnancy can be prevented by controlling the lifestyle. However, the majority of research on this topic has been conducted on lifestyle in women with normal pregnancy. Few studies of lifestyle have focused on Indonesian pregnant women with hypertension. Aim: The purpose of this study is to determine the association of demographic characteristics and the lifestyle of pregnant women who have hypertension. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 76 women with hypertension during pregnancy were recruited from primary health care, West Java, Indonesia. Inclusion criteria were gestational age ≥ 28 weeks with the blood pressure systole ≥ 140 mmHg and diastole ≥ 90 mmHg. Data were collected using two instruments: demographic data and Health Promoting Life Style Profile (HPLP II). Data were analyzed with descriptive statistic and linear regression analysis. Results: The majority of participants were married, mean age was 27.96 years old (SD=6.77) with the mean of gestational age 33.21 (SD=3.49), most of them unemployed (94.7%) and more than a half participants have an education less than twelve years (59.2%). The total score of lifestyle was 2.44 (SD=0.34), more than a half participants experience unhealthy lifestyle (59.2%). Lifestyle was predicted by income, education years, occupation, and access to health care services, accounting for 20.8% of the total variance. Conclusion: Pregnant women with hypertension with low income, low level of education, non-occupational and hard to access health care services were related to unhealthy lifestyle. Understanding the lifestyle and associated factors contributes to health care providers ability to design effective interventions intended to improve healthy lifestyle among pregnant women with hypertension.
Effect of the Diverse Standardized Patient Simulation Cultural Competence Education Strategy on Nursing Students' Transcultural Self-Efficacy Perceptions
Nurse educators have been charged by several nursing organizations and accrediting bodies to provide innovative and evidence-based educational experiences, both didactic and clinical, to help students to develop the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to provide culturally competent nursing care to patients. Clinical simulation, which offers the opportunity for students to practice nursing skills in a risk-free, controlled environment and helps develop self-efficacy (confidence) within the nursing role. As one simulation method, the standardized patients (SPs) simulation helps educators to teach nursing students variety of skills in nursing, medicine, and other health professions. It can be a helpful tool for nurse educators to enhance cultural competence of nursing students. An alarming gap exists within the literature concerning the effectiveness of SP strategy to enhance cultural competence development of diverse student groups, who must work with patients from various backgrounds. This grant-supported, longitudinal, one-group, pretest and post-test educational intervention study aimed to examine the effect of the Diverse Standardized Patient Simulation (DSPS) cultural competence education strategy on students’ (n = 53) transcultural self-efficacy (TSE). The researcher-developed multidimensional DSPS strategy involved careful integration of transcultural nursing skills guided by the Cultural Competence and Confidence (CCC) model. As a carefully orchestrated teaching and learning strategy by specifically utilizing the SP pedagogy, the DSPS also followed international guidelines and standards for the design, implementation, evaluation, and SP training; and had content validity review. The DSPS strategy involved two simulation scenarios targeting underrepresented patient populations (Muslim immigrant woman with limited English proficiency and Irish-Italian American gay man with his partner (Puerto Rican) to be utilized in a second-semester, nine-credit, 15-week medical-surgical nursing course at an urban public US university. Five doctorally prepared content experts reviewed the DSPS strategy for content validity. The item-level content validity index (I-CVI) score was calculated between .80-1.0 on the evaluation forms. Jeffreys’ Transcultural Self-Efficacy Tool (TSET) was administered as a pretest and post-test to assess students’ changes in cognitive, practical, and affective dimensions of TSE. Results gained from this study support that the DSPS cultural competence education strategy assisted students to develop cultural competence and caused statistically significant changes (increase) in students’ TSE perceptions. Results also supported that all students, regardless of their background, benefit (and require) well designed cultural competence education strategies. The multidimensional DSPS strategy is found to be an effective way to foster nursing students’ cultural competence development. Step-by-step description of the DSPS provides an easy adaptation of this strategy with different student populations and settings.
Development and Testing of an Instrument to Measure Beliefs about Cervical Cancer Screening among Women in Botswana
Background: Despite the availability of the Pap smear services in urban areas in Botswana, most women in such areas do not seem to screen regular for prevention of the cervical cancer disease. Reasons for non-use of the available Pap smear services are not well understood. Beliefs about cancer may influence participation in cancer screening in these women. The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to measure beliefs about cervical cancer and Pap smear screening among Black women in Botswana, and evaluate the psychometric properties of the instrument. Significance: Instruments that are designed to measure beliefs about cervical cancer and screening among black women in Botswana, as well as in the surrounding region, are presently not available. Valid and reliable instruments are needed for exploration of the women’s beliefs about cervical cancer. Conceptual Framework: The Health Belief Model (HBM) provided a conceptual framework for the study. Methodology: The study was done in four phases: Phase 1: item generation: 15 items were generated from literature review and qualitative data for each of four conceptually defined HBM constructs: Perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers (Version 1). Phase 2: content validity: Four experts who were advanced practice nurses of African descent and were familiar with the content and the HBM evaluated the content. Experts rated the items on a 4-point Likert scale ranging from: 1=not relevant, 2=somewhat relevant, 3=relevant and 4=very relevant. Fifty-five items were retained for instrument development: perceived susceptibility - 11, severity - 14, benefits - 15 and barriers - 15, all measuring on a 4-point Likert scale ranging from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (4). (Version 2). Phase 3: pilot testing: The instrument was pilot tested on a convenient sample of 30 women in Botswana and revised as needed. Phase 4: reliability: the revised instrument (Version 3) was submitted to a larger sample of women in Botswana (n=300) for reliability testing. The sample included women who were Batswana by birth and decent, were aged 30 years and above and could complete an English questionnaire. Data were collected with the assistance of trained research assistants. Major findings: confirmatory factor analysis of the 55 items found that a number of items did not adequately load in a four-factor solution. Items that exhibited reasonable reliability and had low frequency of missing values (n=36) were retained: perceived barriers (14 items), perceived benefits (8 items), perceived severity (4 items), and perceived susceptibility (10 items). confirmatory factor analysis (principle components) for a four factor solution using varimax rotation demonstrated that these four factors explained 43% of the variation in these 36 items. Conclusion: reliability analysis using Cronbach’s Alpha gave generally satisfactory results with values from 0.53 to 0.89.
Using a Phenomenological Approach to Explore the Experiences of Nursing Students in Coping with Their Emotional Responses in Caring for End-Of-Life Patients
Background: End-of-life care is a large area of all nursing practice and student nurses are likely to meet dying patients in many placement areas. It is therefore important to understand the emotional responses and coping strategies of student nurses in order for nursing education systems to have some appreciation of how nursing students might be supported in the future. Methodology: This research used a qualitative phenomenological approach. Six student nurses understanding a degree-level adult nursing course were interviewed. Their responses to questions were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Finding: The findings identified 3 main themes. First, the common experience of ‘unpreparedness’. A very small number of participants felt that this was unavoidable and that ‘no preparation is possible’, the majority felt that they were unprepared because of ‘insufficient input’ from the university and as a result of wider ‘social taboos’ around death and dying. The second theme showed that emotions were affected by ‘the personal connection to the patient’ and the important sub-themes of ‘the evoking of memories’, ‘involvement in care’ and ‘sense of responsibility’. The third theme, the coping strategies used by students, seemed to fall into two broad areas those ‘internal’ with the student and those ‘external’. In terms of the internal coping strategies, ‘detachment’, ‘faith’, ‘rationalization’ and ‘reflective skills’ are the important components of this part. Regarding the external coping strategies, ‘clinical staff’ and ‘the importance of family and friends’ are the importance of accessing external forms of support. Implication: It is clear that student nurses are affected emotionally by caring for dying patients and many of them have apprehension even before they begin on their placements but very often this is unspoken. Those anxieties before the placement become more pronounced during and continue after the placements. This has implications for when support is offered and possibly its duration. Another significant point of the study is that participants often highlighted their wish to speak to qualified nurses after their experiences of being involved in end-of-life care and especially when they had been present at the time of death. Many of the students spoke that qualified nurses were not available to them. This seemed to be due to a number of reasons. Because the qualified nurses were not available, students had to make use of family members and friends to talk to. Consequently, the implication of this study is not only to educate student nurses but also to educate the qualified mentors on the importance of providing emotional support to students.
Detection of Intravenous Infiltration Using Impedance Parameters in Patients in a Long-Term Care Hospital
This study investigated intravenous (IV) infiltration using bioelectrical impedance for 27 hospitalized patients in a long-term care hospital. Impedance parameters showed significant differences before and after infiltration as follows. First, the resistance (R) after infiltration significantly decreased compared to the initial resistance. This indicates that the IV solution flowing from the vein due to infiltration accumulates in the extracellular fluid (ECF). Second, the relative resistance at 50 kHz was 0.94 ± 0.07 in 9 subjects without infiltration and was 0.75 ± 0.12 in 18 subjects with infiltration. Third, the magnitude of the reactance (Xc) decreased after infiltration. This is because IV solution and blood components released from the vein tend to aggregate in the cell membrane (and acts analogously to the linear/parallel circuit), thereby increasing the capacitance (Cm) of the cell membrane and reducing the magnitude of reactance. Finally, the data points plotted in the R-Xc graph were distributed on the upper right before infiltration but on the lower left after infiltration. This indicates that the infiltration caused accumulation of fluid or blood components in the epidermal and subcutaneous tissues, resulting in reduced resistance and reactance, thereby lowering integrity of the cell membrane. Our findings suggest that bioelectrical impedance is an effective method for detection of infiltration in a noninvasive and quantitative manner.
Decision Tree Analysis of Risk Factors for Intravenous Infiltration among Hospitalized Children: A Retrospective Study
This retrospective study was aimed to identify risk factors of intravenous (IV) infiltration for hospitalized children. The participants were 1,174 children for test and 424 children for validation, who admitted to a general hospital, received peripheral intravenous injection therapy at least once and had complete records. Data were analyzed with frequency and percentage or mean and standard deviation were calculated, and decision tree analysis was used to screen for the most important risk factors for IV infiltration for hospitalized children. The decision tree analysis showed that the most important traditional risk factors for IV infiltration were the use of ampicillin/sulbactam, IV insertion site (lower extremities), and medical department (internal medicine) both in the test sample and validation sample. The correct classification was 92.2% in the test sample and 90.1% in the validation sample. More careful attention should be made to patients who are administered ampicillin/sulbactam, have IV site in lower extremities and have internal medical problems to prevent or detect infiltration occurrence.
Impact of a Home-Based Health Intervention on Older Adults at Risk of Chronic Diseases: A Study Protocol
Older adults are at high risk of chronic health conditions in Singapore. A closer examination at all facets of their aging process has revealed that they may not be necessary aging well. This demands for an increasing healthcare services brought to their home environment due to limited mobility and in the interest of time management. The home environment is an ideal setting to implement self-directed health promoting activities at their convenience and enable family’s support and motivation. This research protocol aims to explore their healthcare concerns, and creation of age appropriate interventions targeted to improve their chronic disease biomarkers. Convenience sampling of 130 families residing in private housing within five major districts in Singapore will be selected to participate in the health intervention. Statistical Package for Social Science 25 will be used to examine the pre and post screening results of their lipid, glycaemia and anthropometric outcomes. Using focus interviews, data results will be translated and transcribed to investigate on enablers, barriers and improvement on these services. Both qualitative and quantitative research outcomes are crucial to examine the impact of these services for these older adults living in private housing as they are not exposed to government subsidized community health programs. It is hypothesized that provision of relevant yet engaging health programs at their homes may mitigate the rising burden of chronic health conditions and result in successful aging outcomes among older Singaporeans.
A Cross-Sectional Study Assessing Communication Practices among Doctors at a University Hospital in Pakistan
Communication among health care givers is the essence of quality patient care and any compromise results in errors and inefficiency leading to cumbersome outcomes. The use of smartphone among health professionals has increased tremendously. Almost every health professional carries it and majority of them uses a third party communication software called whatsApp for work related communications. It gives instant access to the person responsible for any particular query and therefore helps in efficient and timely decision making. It is also an easy way of sharing medical documents, multimedia and provides platform for consensual decision making through group discussions. However clinical communication through whatsApp has some demerits too including reduction in verbal communication, worsening professional relations, unprofessional behavior, risk of confidentiality breach and threats from cyber-attacks. On the other hand the traditional pager device being used in many health care systems is a unidirectional communication that lacks the ability to convey any information other than the number to which the receiver has to respond. Our study focused on these two widely used modalities of communication among doctors of the largest tertiary care center of Pakistan i.e. The Aga Khan University Hospital. Our aim was to note which modality is considered better and has fewer threats to medical data. Approval from ethical review committee of the institute was taken prior to conduction of this study. We submitted an online survey form to all the interns and residents working at our institute and collected their response in a month’s time. 162 submissions were recorded and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Only 20% of them were comfortable with using pagers exclusively, 52% with whatsApp and 28% with both. 65% think that whatsApp is time-saving and quicker than pager. 54% of them considered whatsApp to be causing nuisance from work related notifications in their off-work hours. 60% think that they are more likely to miss information through pager system because of the unidirectional nature. Almost all (96%) of residents and interns found whatsApp to be useful in terms of saving information for future reference. For urgent issues, majority (70%) preferred pager over whatsApp and also pager was considered more valid in terms of hospital policies and legal issues. Among major advantages of whatsApp as listed by them were; easy mass communication, sharing of clinical pictures, universal access and no need of carrying additional device. However the major drawback of using whatsApp for clinical communication that everyone shared was threat to patients’ confidentiality as clinicians usually share pictures of wounds, clinical documents etc. Lastly we asked them if they think there is a need of a separate application for instant communication dedicated to clinical communication only and 90% responded positively. Therefore, we concluded that both modalities have their merits and demerits but the greatest drawback with whatsApp is the risk of breach in patients’ confidentiality and off-work disturbance. Hence, we recommend a more secure, institute-run application for all intra hospital communications where they can share documents, pictures etc. easily under a controlled environment.
Effects of a Nursing Intervention Program Using a Rehabilitation Self-Management Workbook on Depression, Motivation and Self-Efficacy of Rehabilitation Inpatients
Background & Purpose: Many patients have psychological problems such as depression and anxiety during the rehabilitation period. Such psychological instability affects the prognosis of the patient in the long term. We develop a nursing intervention program for rehabilitation inpatients using a rehabilitation self –management note and evaluate the effects of the program on depression, motivation, and self-efficacy. Methods: The study was conducted using a nonequivalent control group non-synchronized design. Participants were rehabilitation inpatients, 27 patients in the control group and 20 in the experimental group. Questionnaires were completed three times (pretest, 5 days, 10 days) Final data for 40 patients were analyzed, 23 patients in the control group and 17 in the experimental group. Data were analyzed using x2-test, t-test, and repeated measure ANOVA. Results: Depression in the experimental group decreased compared to the control group, but it was not significant. The motivation for the experimental group changed significantly (F=3.90, p=.029) and self-efficacy increased, but not significantly (F=0.59, p=.559) Conclusion: Results of this study indicate that nursing intervention programs for rehabilitation inpatients could be useful to decrease depression and to improve motivation and self-efficacy.
Explaining the Role of Iran Health System in Polypharmacy among the Elderly
Taking unnecessary or excessive medication or using drugs with no indication (polypharmacy) by people of all ages, especially the elderly, is associated with increased adverse drug reactions (ADR), medical errors, hospitalization and escalating the costs. It may be facilitated or impeded by the healthcare system. In this study, we are going to describe the role of the health system in the practice of polypharmacy in Iranian elderly. In this Inductive qualitative content analysis using Graneheim and Lundman methods, purposeful sample selection until saturation has been made. Participants have been selected from doctors, pharmacists, policy-makers and the elderly. A total of 25 persons (9 men and 16 women) have participated in this study. Data analysis after incorporating codes with similar characteristics revealed 14 subcategories and six main categories of the referral system, physicians’ accessibility, health data management, drug market, laws enforcement, and social protection. Some of the conditions of the healthcare system have given rise to polypharmacy in the elderly. In the absence of a comprehensive specialty and subspecialty referral system, patients may go to any physician office so may well be confused about numerous doctors' prescriptions. Electronic records not being prepared for the patients, failure to comply with laws, lack of robust enforcement for the existing laws and close surveillance are among the contributing factors. Inadequate insurance and supportive services are also evident. Age-specific care providing has not yet been institutionalized, while, inadequate specialist workforce playing a major role. So, one may not ignore the health system as contributing factor in designing effective interventions to fix the problem.
Perception of Nurses and Caregivers on Fall Preventive Management for Hospitalized Children Based on Ecological Model
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify hospitalized children's fall risk factors, fall prevention status and fall prevention strategies recognized by nurses and caregivers of hospitalized children and present an ecological model for fall preventive management in hospitalized children. Method: The participants of this study were 14 nurses working in medical institutions and having more than one year of child care experience and 14 adult caregivers of children under 6 years of age receiving inpatient treatment at a medical institution. One to one interview was attempted to identify their perception of fall preventive management. Transcribed data were analyzed through latent content analysis method. Results: Fall risk factors in hospitalized children were 'unpredictable behavior', 'instability', 'lack of awareness about danger', 'lack of awareness about falls', 'lack of child control ability', 'lack of awareness about the importance of fall prevention', 'lack of sensitivity to children', 'untidy environment around children', 'lack of personalized facilities for children', 'unsafe facility', 'lack of partnership between healthcare provider and caregiver', 'lack of human resources', 'inadequate fall prevention policy', 'lack of promotion about fall prevention', 'a performanceism oriented culture'. Fall preventive management status of hospitalized children were 'absence of fall prevention capability', 'efforts not to fall', 'blocking fall risk situation', 'limit the scope of children's activity when there is no caregiver', 'encourage caregivers' fall prevention activities', 'creating a safe environment surrounding hospitalized children', 'special management for fall high risk children', 'mutual cooperation between healthcare providers and caregivers', 'implementation of fall prevention policy', 'providing guide signs about fall risk'. Fall preventive management strategies of hospitalized children were 'restrain dangerous behavior', 'inspiring awareness about fall', 'providing fall preventive education considering the child's eye level', 'efforts to become an active subject of fall prevention activities', 'providing customed fall prevention education', 'open communication between healthcare providers and caregivers', 'infrastructure and personnel management to create safe hospital environment', 'expansion fall prevention campaign', 'development and application of a valid fall assessment instrument', 'conversion of awareness about safety'. Conclusion: In this study, the ecological model of fall preventive management for hospitalized children reflects various factors that directly or indirectly affect the fall prevention of hospitalized children. Therefore, these results can be considered as useful baseline data for developing systematic fall prevention programs and hospital policies to prevent fall accident in hospitalized children. Funding: This study was funded by the National Research Foundation of South Korea (grant number NRF-2016R1A2B1015455).
The Impact of Nurse-Physician Interprofessional Relationship on Nurses' Willingness to Engage in Leadership Roles: A Multilevel Modelling Approach
Nurse leaders play a fundamental role in transforming healthcare system and improving quality of patient care. Several healthcare organizations have called to increase the number of nurse leaders across all levels and in every practice setting. Identification of factors influencing nurses’ willingness to lead can inform healthcare leaders and policy makers of potentially illuminating strategies for establishing favorable work environments that motivate nurses to engage in leadership roles. The aim of this study was to investigate determinants of nurses’ willingness to engage in future leadership roles. The study was conducted at a public hospital in the Sultanate of Oman. A total of 171 registered nurses participated. A multilevel modeling was conducted. Findings revealed that 80% of nurses were likely to seek out opportunities to engage in leadership roles. The quality of the nurse-physician collegial relationships was a significant predictor of nurses’ willingness to lead. Establishing a work environment’s culture of positive nurse-physician relationships is critical to enhance nurses’ work attitude and engage them in leadership roles.
An Evaluation of Cognitive Function Level, Depression, and Quality of Life of Elderly People Living in a Nursing Home
Introduction: This study was conducted with a view to evaluating cognitive function level, depression, and quality of life of elderly people living in a nursing home. Methods: This study, which is cross-sectional and descriptive in nature, was conducted in the Nursing and Rehabilitation Center for the Elderly in Adana/Turkey between 1st of May and 1st of August, 2016. The participants included 118 elderly people who were chosen using simple random sampling method. The data were collected using the Personal Information Form, the Standardized Mini Mental State Exam (SMMSE), the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-OLD (WHOQOL-OLD) module. The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics 22 (IBM, SPSS, Turkey) program. Results: Of all the participants, 36,4% (n=43) were female, 63,6% (n=75) were male, and average age was 74,08 ± 8,23 years. The participants’ SMMSE mean score was found 20,37 ± 7,08, GDS mean score was 14,92 ± 4,29, and WHOQOL-OLD module mean score was 69,76 ± 11,54. There was a negative, significant relationship between SMMSE and GDS scores, a positive relationship between WHOQOL-OLD module total scores and a negative, significant relationship between GDS scores and WHOQOL-OLD module total scores. Discussıon and Conclusion: Results showed that more than half of the elderly people living in the nursing home experienced cognitive deterioration and depression; and cognitive state, depression, and quality of life were found to be significantly related to each other.
Nurses' and Patients’ Perception about Care: A Comparative Study
The purpose of this research is to investigate the way nurses perceive the care provided in comparison to the way patients perceive it, taking into account existing literature. As far as the sample of research is concerned, it has come from the population of nurses working in the General Hospital of Thessaloniki, St. Paul and the patients of its surgical clinic. In the present study, the sample consists of 100 nurses and 88 patients. The questionnaire used was the Caring Nurse-Patient Interactions Scale: 23-Item Version, created by Cossette et al. (2006). In the case of both patients and nurses, a high score was observed in relational care in the case of the frequency of nursing care in daily practice, as well as the satisfaction of providing nursing care. Overall, patients rated higher clinical care in the case of the frequency of nursing care in daily practice, as well as the satisfaction of the clinical care they were given. On the other hand, nurses rated higher comfort care in the case of the frequency of nursing care in everyday practice, as well as relational care in the area of the importance of nursing care in everyday practice.
Investigation of the Level of Physical and Mental Health of Patients Undergoing in Chronic or Transient Hemodialysis at Artificial Kidney Unit
Objective: The objective of this study was the investigation of the mental health of patients undergoing chronic or transient hemodialysis at Artificial Kidney Unit, as well as its relationship to the demographic characteristic of patients. Material and Method: The study took place in Larisa during the month of December in 2016 and the sample was composed of 60 patients undergoing in chronic or transient hemodialysis at Artificial Kidney Unit of the University General Hospital of Larisa. For the investigation of the physical and mental health of patients who participated in the study, the tool measurement > (GHQ-28) was used. The questionnaires were administered with the interview method during the hemodialysis. This survey is designed for the existence or not of a mental disorder. It examines four factors (physical symptoms, anxiety, social dysfunction and depression). Results: The hemodialysis patients gave the following scores: -to the physical symptoms, women showed a higher average value than men (1,16 ± 1,26 against 0,49 ± 0,93), -at the anxiety scale, it seems that women are superior to men (1,68 ± 1,20 against 0,90 ± 1,22), -at the social dysfunction scale, the elderly patients ( > 65 years old) were presented a with higher average (2,59), and -at the depression scale, patients with a higher average value were those who lived in non-urban areas. The appearance of mental disorder, in relation to patient characteristics, did not show significant statistical correlation. The sex, the age and the place of residence affect more the assessment of mental health, while education did not seem to have any significant effect on the other. Conclusions: The hemodialysis process can significantly affect the patient’s Quality of Life and it can bring adverse changes in lifestyle, affecting the physical, social and psychological state of the individual. For that reason, hemodialysis should be aimed not only at extending life but in upgrading the Quality of Life.
Correlation of Empathy with Job Satisfaction and Stress of Social Workers
There is a big discussion in the international literature on empathy, job satisfaction and job occupational among various of disciplines, including social workers. Νevertheless these parameters have not been specifically studied in the Greek territory. This paper aims to study empathy of social workers, to produce results related to whether empathy is influenced by demographic factors such as gender, age, marital status, level of education and study their perceived stress levels and also the satisfaction they derive from their work. For the first time, an attempt is made to link the empathy of these professionals to their job satisfaction and their anxiety. The sample of this survey consists of 165 social workers working on providers of public and private social services. The results showed that social workers have high levels of empathy contrary to the perceived stress levels which were low to moderate. Regarding the field of the job satisfaction, the survey showed that social workers are very satisfied with their workpiece and workplace. The survey shows no significant relationship between empathy and demographic factors, but there is a significant relationship between empathy and the workpiece/job satisfaction and the feeling of success.
Quality of Life of Women with Breast Cancer and Its Correlation with Depression and Anxiety
Women with breast cancer have to adapt to physical malformations, side effects of chemotherapy, emotional insecurity, and changes in social roles. Inability to recognize the co-morbidity of psychiatric conditions can have an aggravating effect on patient compliance in therapeutic interventions, resulting in treatment delays and an impact on overall survival. The purpose of this study was to identify the quality of life of breast cancer patients undergoing external radiation therapy and to correlate it with depression and anxiety. Patients were asked to respond to an anonymous questionnaire with general demographic and clinical questions, followed by the EORTCQLQ-C30 questionnaire for assessing the quality of life of patients with breast cancer. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) as well as the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) was also administered. The statistical analysis of the data was done in IBM SPSS. Results indicated that the incidence of anxiety and depression in breast cancer patients is high both in HADS (37.5 % with mild to moderate depression and 62.5 % with significant to severe depression) and DASS - 21 (39.2 % mild to moderate depression and 60.8 % significant to severe) scales. The correlation of anxiety and depression with life quality was negative for HADS (r = -, 810, p = .000) as well as for DASS-21 (r = -, 682, p = .000). The psychological impact of breast cancer on patients is important. Its correlation with the quality of life may lead to better tolerance to treatment and better effectiveness of the therapeutic approach.
The Experience of Head Nurse: Phenomenological Research of Implementing Islamic Leadership Style in Syarif Hidayatullah Hospital
Islamic leadership style is model of leadership style applied by the Prophet Muhammad SAW.
Islamic leadership style is applied, namely Syura (deliberation), ‘Adl bil qisth (justice, with equality), and Hurriyyah al-kalam (freedom of expression) and along with the values of Islam in the Islamic leadership style. This research aims to gain an overview of the experience of Head Nurse in the implementation of Islamic leadership style. This research is a qualitative one with descriptive phenomenology design through in-depth interviews. Participants were occupied as Head Nurse at the Hospital room Syarif Hidayatullah, set directly (purposive) with the principle of suitability (appropriateness) and sufficiency (adequacy). Retrieval of data and research conducted during the month of June 2014. Data collected in the form of recording in-depth interviews and analysis with Collazi method. This research identified four themes Syura (deliberation);‘Adl bil qisth (justice, with equality); Hurriyyah al-kalam (freedom of expression) and along with the values of Islam in the Islamic leadership style. The results of this research can provide a review of the Head Room experience in the application of Islamic leadership style at Syarif Hidayatullah Hospital already skilled leadership during the process, but the application is still not maximized. Required further research on in-depth exploration of how to get more comprehensive results from room Head Nurse experience in the application of Islamic leadership style, as well as subsequent researchers can choose a wider scope and complex so get more complete data.
Effect of Simulation on Anxiety and Knowledge among Novice Nursing Students
Simulation-based learning is an educational strategy designed to simulate actual clinical situations in a safe environment. Globally, simulation is recognized by several landmark studies as an effective teaching-learning method. A systematic review of the literature on simulation revealed simulation as a useful strategy in creating a learning environment which contributes to knowledge, skills, safety, and confidence. However, to the best of the author's knowledge, there are no studies on assessing the anxiety of the students undergoing simulation. Hence the researchers undertook a study with the aim to evaluate the effectiveness of simulation on anxiety and knowledge among novice nursing students. This quasi-experimental study had a total sample of 69 students (35- Intervention group with simulation and 34- Control group with case scenario) consisting of all the students enrolled in the Fundamentals of Nursing Laboratory course during Spring 2016 and Fall 2016 semesters at a college of nursing in Oman. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of the college of nursing. Informed consent was obtained from every participant. Study received the Dean’s fund for research. The data were collected regarding the demographic information, knowledge and anxiety levels before and after the use of simulation and case scenario for the procedure nasogastric tube feeding in intervention and control group respectively. The intervention was performed by four faculties who were the core team members of the course. Results were analyzed in SPSS using descriptive and inferential statistics. Majority of the students’ in intervention (82.9%) and control (89.9%) groups were equal to or below the age of 20 years, were females (71%), 76.8% of them were from rural areas and 65.2% had a GPA of more than 2.5. The selection of the samples to either the experimental or the control group was from a homogenous population (p > 0.05). There was a significant reduction of anxiety among the students of control group (t (67) = 2.418, p = 0.018) comparing to the experimental group, indicating that simulation creates anxiety among Novice nursing students. However, there was no significant difference in the mean scores of knowledge. In conclusion, the study was useful in that it will help the investigators better understand the implications of using simulation in teaching skills to novice students. Since previous studies with students indicate better knowledge acquisition; this study revealed that simulation can increase anxiety among novice students possibly it is the first time they are introduced to this method of teaching.
Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Ankle-Brachial Index as Predictors of the Severity of Coronary Artery Disease
Introduction: Atherosclerosis is one of the leading causes of death all over the world. Recently, there is an increasing interest in Carotid Intima-Medial Thickness (CIMT) and Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) as non-invasive tools for identifying subclinical atherosclerosis. We aim to examine the role of CIMT and ABI as predictors of the severity of angiographically documented coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted on 60 patients who were investigated by coronary angiography at Sohag University Hospital, Egypt. CIMT: After the carotid arteries were located by transverse scans, the probe was rotated 90 ° to obtain and record longitudinal images of bilateral carotid arteries ABI: Each patient was evaluated in the supine position after resting for 5 min. ABI was measured in each leg using a Doppler Ultrasound while the patient remained in the same position. The lowest ABI obtained for either leg was taken as the ABI measurement for the patient. Results: Patients with carotid mean IMT ≥ 0.9 mm had significantly more severe coronary artery disease than patients without thickening (mean IMT > 0.9 mm). Similarly, patients with low ABI (< 0.9) had significantly more severe coronary artery disease than patients with ABI ≥ 0.9. When the patients were divided into 4 groups (group A, n = 15, mean IMT < 0.9 mm, ABI ≥ 0.9; group B, n = 25, mean IMT < 0.9 mm, low ABI; group C, n = 5, mean IMT ≥ 0.9 mm, ABI ≥ 0.9; group D, n = 19, mean IMT ≤ 0.9 mm, low ABI), the presence of significant coronary stenosis (> 50%) of the groups were significantly different (group A, n = 5: (33.3%); group B, n = 11: (52.4%); group C, n = 4: (60%); group D, n=15, (78.9%), P = 0.001). Conclusion: CIMT and ABI provide useful information on the severity of CAD. Early and aggressive intervention should be considered in patients with CAD and abnormalities in one or both of these non-invasive modalities.
Influencing Factors and Mechanism of Patient Engagement in Healthcare: A Survey in China
Objective: It is increasingly recognized that patients’ rational and meaningful engagement in healthcare could make important contributions to their health care and safety management. However, recent evidence indicated that patients' actual roles in healthcare didn’t match their desired roles, and many patients reported a less active role than desired, which suggested that patient engagement in healthcare may be influenced by various factors. This study aimed to analyze influencing factors on patient engagement and explore the influence mechanism, which will be expected to contribute to the strategy development of patient engagement in healthcare. Methods: On the basis of analyzing the literature and theory study, the research framework was developed. According to the research framework, a cross-sectional survey was employed using the behavior and willingness of patient engagement in healthcare questionnaire, Chinese version All Aspects of Health Literacy Scale, Facilitation of Patient Involvement Scale and Wake Forest Physician Trust Scale, and other influencing factor related scales. A convenience sample of 580 patients was recruited from 8 general hospitals in Shanghai, Jiangsu Province, and Zhejiang Province. Results: The results of the cross-sectional survey indicated that the mean score for the patient engagement behavior was (4.146 ± 0.496), and the mean score for the willingness was (4.387 ± 0.459). The level of patient engagement behavior was inferior to their willingness to be involved in healthcare (t = 14.928, P ＜ 0.01). The influencing mechanism model of patient engagement in healthcare was constructed by the path analysis. The path analysis revealed that patient attitude toward engagement, patients’ perception of facilitation of patient engagement and health literacy played direct prediction on the patients’ willingness of engagement, and standard estimated values of path coefficient were 0.341, 0.199, 0.291, respectively. Patients’ trust in physician and the willingness of engagement played direct prediction on the patient engagement, and standard estimated values of path coefficient were 0.211, 0.641, respectively. Patient attitude toward engagement, patients’ perception of facilitation and health literacy played indirect prediction on patient engagement, and standard estimated values of path coefficient were 0.219, 0.128, 0.187, respectively. Conclusions: Patients engagement behavior did not match their willingness to be involved in healthcare. The influencing mechanism model of patient engagement in healthcare was constructed. Patient attitude toward engagement, patients’ perception of facilitation of engagement and health literacy posed indirect positive influence on patient engagement through the patients’ willingness of engagement. Patients’ trust in physician and the willingness of engagement had direct positive influence on the patient engagement. Patient attitude toward engagement, patients’ perception of physician facilitation of engagement and health literacy were the factors influencing the patients’ willingness of engagement. The results of this study provided valuable evidence on guiding the development of strategies for promoting patient rational and meaningful engagement in healthcare.
Determinants of Diarrhoea Prevalence Variations in Mountainous Informal Settlements of Kigali City, Rwanda
Introduction: Diarrhoea is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among communities living in urban informal settlements of developing countries. It is assumed that mountainous environment introduces variations of the burden among residents of the same settlements. Design and Objective: A cross-sectional study was done in Kigali to explore the effect of mountainous informal settlements on diarrhoea risk variations. Data were collected among 1,152 households through household survey and transect walk to observe the status of sanitation. The outcome variable was the incidence of diarrhoea among household members of any age. The study used the most knowledgeable person in the household as the main respondent. Mostly this was the woman of the house as she was more likely to know the health status of every household member as she plays various roles: mother, wife, and head of the household among others. The analysis used cross tabulation and logistic regression analysis. Results: Results suggest that risks for diarrhoea vary depending on home location in the settlements. Diarrhoea risk increased as the distance from the road increased. The results of the logistic regression analysis indicate the adjusted odds ratio of 2.97 with 95% confidence interval being 1.35-6.55 and 3.50 adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval being 1.61-7.60 in level two and three respectively compared with level one. The status of sanitation within and around homes was also significantly associated with the increase of diarrhoea. Equally, it is indicated that stable households were less likely to have diarrhoea. The logistic regression analysis indicated the adjusted odds ratio of 0.45 with 95% confidence interval being 0.25-0.81. However, the study did not find evidence for a significant association between diarrhoea risks and household socioeconomic status in the multivariable model. It is assumed that environmental factors in mountainous settings prevailed. Households using the available public water sources were more likely to have diarrhoea in their households. Recommendation: The study recommends the provision and extension of infrastructure for improved water, drainage, sanitation and wastes management facilities. Equally, studies should be done to identify the level of contamination and potential origin of contaminants for water sources in the valleys to adequately control the risks for diarrhoea in mountainous urban settings.
Household Socioeconomic Factors Associated with Teenage Pregnancies in Kigali City, Rwanda
Teenage pregnancy is a challenging problem for sustainable development due to restrictions it poses to socioeconomic opportunities for young mothers, their children and families. Being unable to take appropriate economic and social responsibilities, teen mothers get trapped into poverty and become economic burden to their family and country. Besides, teenage pregnancy is also a health problem because children born to very young mothers are vulnerable with greater risk of illnesses and deaths, and teenage mothers are more likely to be exposed to greater risk of maternal mortality and to other health and psychological problems. In Kigali city, in Rwanda, teenage pregnancy rate is currently high and its increase in recent years is worrisome. However, only individual factors influencing the teenage pregnancy tend to be the basis of interventions. It is important to understand the important socioeconomic factors at the household level that are associated with teenage pregnancy to help government, parents, and other stakeholders to appropriately address the problem with sustainable measures. This study analyzed secondary data from the Fifth Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey (RDHS-V 2014-2015) conducted by the National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda (NISR). The aim was to examine household socio-economic factors that are associated with incidence of teenage pregnancies in Kigali city. In addition to descriptive analysis, Pearson’s Chi Square and Binary Logistic Regression were used in the analysis. Findings indicate that marital status and age of household head, number of members in a household, number of rooms used for sleeping, educational level of the household head and household's wealth are significantly associated with teenage pregnancy in Rwanda ( p< 0.05). It was found that teenagers living with parents, those having parents with higher education and those from richer families are less likely to become pregnant. Age of household head was pinpointed as factor to teenage pregnancy, with teenage-headed households being more vulnerable. The findings also revealed that household composition correlates with the probability of teenage pregnancy (p < 0.05) with teenagers from households with less number of members being more vulnerable. Regarding the size of the house, the study suggested that the more rooms available in households, the less incidences of teenage pregnancy are likely to be observed (p < 0.05). However, teenage pregnancy was not significantly associated with physical violence among parents (p = 0.65) and sex of household heads (p = 0.52), except in teen-headed households of which female are predominantly heads. The study concludes that teenage pregnancy remains a serious social, economic and health problem in Rwanda. The study informs government officials, parents and other stakeholders to take interventions and preventive measures through community sex education, policies and strategies to foster effective parental guidance, care and control of young girls through meeting their necessary social and financial needs within households.