Impact of Mid-Day Meal on Nutritional Status of Primary School Children in Haryana, India
India is one among the many countries where child malnutrition is severe and also a major underlying cause of child mortality. The Mid Day Meal (MDM) program was launched to improve the nutritional status of children, attendance, and retention in schools.
It was based on one meal provided to the children, who are attending elementary school (primary school). The objective of present study was to evaluate the impact of mid-day meal on the nutritional status of primary school children in Haryana, India.
The present work was carried out on 1200 children between 6-11years of age, studying in primary schools in Haryana, India. Out of these 960 students as, the experimental group was selected from schools where mid-day meal is supplied by the government, and 240 students as control group where mid-day meal is not supplied. The mean height, weight, and BMI of children of both the groups were found to be significantly low as compared to NCHS standards.
Stunting was found in 56.40% MDMB (Mid-day meal beneficiaries) and 62.50 % NMDMC (non- mid-day meal children).The weight of almost all subjects were low according to age indicating thinness. Anemia was more prevalent in MDMB as compared to NMDMC may be because school meals did not include vegetables. The consumption of energy, proteins, fat, calcium, iron, vitamins was significantly low (P ≤ .01) in both groups especially in girls of NMDM. The consumption of various food groups except vegetables was better in MDMB compared to NMDMC.
It is concluded that with certain improvements, mid-meal can be beneficial in meeting everyday requirements of school going children.
Antioxidant Properties of Snack Crackers Incorporated with Mahaleb (Prunus mahaleb L) Powder
Nowadays, consumer demand has been increasing for the healthy and functional food. In this context, some natural products rich in phenolic compounds are also added to cereal based food for health benefits. Natural phenolic compounds have many beneficial bioactivities such as anti-allergic, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and anti-mutagenic activities. It has been found that various plant species contain natural bioactive phytochemicals with antioxidant function. One of these plant species is mahaleb (Prunus mahaleb L). Mahaleb berries with dark blue or red colours have the highest antioxidant capacities among all common fruits and vegetables. The aim of this study was to determine the possibilities of improving the antioxidant properties of novel snack crackers by supplementing with mahaleb (Prunus mahaleb L) powder. For this purpose mahaleb powder were used to replace wheat flour in the snack cracker formulation at two different levels (5%, and 7.5% w/w). As a result, mahaleb supplementation caused an increase in total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of crackers. It can be say that mahaleb powder can be used as an alternative functional and nutritional ingredient in bakery products.
Bioaccessible Phenolics, Phenolic Bioaccessibility and Antioxidant Activity of Pumpkin Flour
Pumpkin flour (PF) has a long shelf life and can be used as a nutritive, functional (antioxidant properties, phenolic contents, etc.) and coloring agent in many food items, especially in bakery products, sausages, instant noodles, pasta and flour mixes. Pre-treatment before drying is one of the most important factors affecting the quality of a final powdered product. Pretreatment, such as soaking in a bisulfite solution, provides that total carotenoids in raw materials rich in carotenoids, especially pumpkins, are retained in the dried product. This is due to the beneficial effect of antioxidant additives in the protection of carotenoids in the dehydrated plant foods. The oxygen present in the medium is removed by the radical SO₂, and thus the carotene degradation caused by the molecular oxygen is inhibited by the presence of SO₂.
In this study, pumpkin flours (PFs) produced by two different applications (with or without metabisulfite pre-treatment) and then dried in a freeze dryer. The phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of pumpkin flour were determined. In addition to this, the compound of bioavailable phenolic substances which is obtained by PF has also been investigated using in vitro methods. As a result of researches made in recent years, it has been determined that all nutrients taken with foodstuffs are not bioavailable. Bioavailability changes depending on physical properties, chemical compounds, and capacities of individual digestion of foods. Therefore in this study; bioaccessible phenolics and phenolic bioaccessibility were also determined.
The phenolics of the samples with metabisulfite application were higher than those of the samples without metabisulfite pre-treatment. Soaking in metabisulfite solution might have a protective effect for phenolic compounds. Phenolics bioaccessibility of pumpkin flours was investigated in order to assess pumpkin flour as sources of accessible phenolics. The higher bioaccessible phenolics (384.19 mg of GAE 100g⁻¹ DW) and phenolic bioaccessibility values (33.65 mL 100 mL⁻¹) were observed in the pumpkin flour with metabisulfite pre-treatment. Metabisulfite application caused an increase in bioaccessible phenolics of pumpkin flour. According to all assay (ABTS, CUPRAC, DPPH, and FRAP) results, both free and bound phenolics of pumpkin flour with metabisulfite pre-treatment had higher antioxidant activity than those of the sample without metabisulfite pre-treatment. The samples subjected to MS pre-treatment exhibited higher antioxidant activities than those of the samples without MS pre-treatment, this possibly due to higher phenolic contents of the samples with metabisulfite applications.
As a result, metabisulfite application caused an increase in phenolic contents, bioaccessible phenolics, phenolic bioaccessibility and antioxidant activities of pumpkin flour. It can be said that pumpkin flour can be used as an alternative functional and nutritional ingredient in bakery products, dairy products (yoghurt, ice-cream), soups, sauces, infant formulae, confectionery, etc.
Bioaccessible Phenolics, Phenolic Bioaccessibilities and Antioxidant Activities of Cookies Supplemented with Pumpkin Flour
In this study, pumpkin flours (PFs) were used to replace wheat flour in cookie formulation at three different levels (10%, 20% and 30% w/w). For this purpose PFs produced by two different applications (with or without metabisulfite pre-treatment) and then dried in freeze dryer. Control sample included no PFs. The total phenolic contents of the cookies supplemented with PFs were higher than that of control and gradually increased in total phenolic contents of cookies with increasing PF supplementation levels. Phenolic content makes also significant contribution on nutritional excellence of the developed cookies. Pre-treatment with metabisulfite (MS) had a positive effect on free, bound and total phenolics of cookies which are supplemented with various levels of MS-PF. This is due to a protective effect of metabisulfite pretreatment for phenolic compounds in the pumpkin flour. Phenolic antioxidants may act and absorb in a different way in humans and thus their antioxidant and health effects will be changed accordingly. In the present study phenolics’ bioavailability of cookies was investigated in order to assess PF as sources of accessible phenolics. The content of bioaccessible phenolics and phenolic bioaccessibility of cookies supplemented with PFs had higher than those of control sample. Cookies enriched with 30% MS-PF had the highest bioaccessible phenolics (597.86 mg GAE 100g-1) and phenolic bioaccessibility (41.71%). MS application in PF production caused a significant increase in phenolic bioaccessibility of cookies. According to all assay (ABTS, CUPRAC, FRAP and DPPH), antioxidant activities of cookies with PFs higher than that of control cookie. It was also observed that the cookies supplemented with MS-PF had significantly higher antioxidant activities than those of cookies including PF. In presented study, antioxidative bioaccessibilities of cookies were also determined. The cookies with PFs had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher antioxidative bioaccessibilities than control ones. Increasing PFs levels enhanced antioxidative bioaccessibilities of cookies. As a result, PFs addition improved the nutritional and functional properties of cookie by causing increase in antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, bioaccessible phenolics and phenolic bioaccessibilities.
The Study of Spray Drying Process for Skimmed Coconut Milk
Coconut (Cocos nucifera) belongs to the family Arecaceae. Coconut juice and meat are consumed as food and dessert in several regions of the world. Coconut juice contains low proteins, and arginine is the main amino acid content. Coconut meat is the endosperm of coconut that has nutritional value. It composes of carbohydrate, protein and fat. The objective of this study is utilization of by-products from the virgin coconut oil extraction process by using the skimmed coconut milk as a powder. The skimmed coconut milk was separated from the coconut milk in virgin coconut oil extraction process that consists approximately of protein 6.4%, carbohydrate 7.2%, dietary fiber 0.27 %, sugar 6.27%, fat 3.6 % and moisture content of 86.93%. This skimmed coconut milk can be made to powder for value - added product by using spray drying. The factors effect to the yield and properties of dry skimmed coconut milk in spraying process are inlet, outlet air temperature and the maltodextrin concentration. The percentage of maltodextrin content (15, 20%), outlet air temperature (80 ºC, 85 ºC, 90 ºC) and inlet air temperature (190 ºC, 200 ºC, 210 ºC) were conducted to the skimmed coconut milk spray drying process. The spray dryer was kept air flow rate (0.2698 m3 /s). The result that shown 2.22 -3.23% of moisture content, solubility, bulk density (0.4-0.67g/mL), solubility, wettability (4.04 -19.25 min) for solubility in the water, color, particle size were analyzed for the powder samples. The maximum yield (18.00%) of spray dried coconut milk powder was obtained at 210 °C of temperature, 80°C of outlet temperature and 20% maltodextrin for 27.27 second for drying time. For the amino analysis shown that the high amino acids are Glutamine (16.28%), Arginine (10.32%) and Glycerin (9.59%) by using HPLP method (UV detector).
Effect of Pulsed Electrical Fields on the Structural Properties That Affect French Fry Texture during Processing
French fry manufacturing involves a series of processes in which structural properties of potatoes are modified to produce crispy french fries which consumers enjoy. In addition to the traditional french fry manufacturing process, the industry is applying a relatively new process called pulsed electrical field (PEF) to the whole potatoes. There is a wealth of information on the technical treatment conditions of PEF, however, there is a lack of information about its effect on the structural properties that affect texture and its synergistic interactions with the other manufacturing steps of french fry production. The effect of PEF on starch gelatinisation properties of Russet Burbank potato was measured using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter. Cation content (K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+) was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometry. Firmness, and toughness of raw and blanched potatoes were determined in an uniaxial compression test. Moisture content was determined in a vacuum oven and oil content was measured using the soxhlet system with hexane. The final texture of the french fries – crispness - was determined using a three bend point test. Triangle tests were conducted to determine if consumers were able to perceive sensory differences between French fries that were PEF treated and those without treatment. The concentration of K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ decreased significantly in the raw potatoes after the PEF treatment. The PEF treatment significantly increased modulus of elasticity, compression strain, compression force and toughness in the raw potato. The PEF-treated raw potato were firmer and stiffer, and its structure integrity held together longer, resisted higher force before fracture and stretched further than the untreated ones. The strain stress relationship exhibited by the PEF-treated raw potato could be due to an increase in the permeability of the plasmalema and tonoplasm allowing Ca2+ and Mg2+ cations to reach the cell wall and middle lamella, and be available for cross linking with the pectin molecule. The PEF-treated raw potato exhibited a slightly higher onset gelatinisation temperatures, similar peak temperatures and lower gelatinisation ranges than the untreated raw potatoes. The final moisture content of the french fries was not significantly affected by the PEF treatment. Oil content in the PEF- treated potatoes was lower than the untreated french fries, however, not statistically significant at 5 %. The PEF treatment did not have an overall significant effect on french fry crispness (modulus of elasticity), flexure stress or strain. The triangle tests show that most consumers could not detect a difference between French fries that received a PEF treatment from those that did not.
Food Safety Management in Riyadh’s Ministry of Health Hospitals
Providing patients with safe meals on a daily basis is one of the challenges in the healthcare sector. In Saudi Arabia matters related to food safety and hygiene have been the heart of the Ministry of Health (MOH) and Saudi Food and Drugs Authority (SFDA). The aim of this study is to examine the causes of inadequate implementation of food safety management systems such as HACCP in Riyadh’s MOH hospitals. By the law, food safety must be managed using a documented, HACCP based approach, and food handlers must be appropriately trained in food safety. Food handlers in Saudi Arabia are not required to provide a certificate or attend a food handling training course even in healthcare sectors. Since food safety and hygiene issues are of increasing importance for Saudi Arabian health decision makers, the SFDA has been established to apply food hygiene requirements in all food operations. It should be pointed out that the implications of food outbreaks on the whole society may potentially go beyond individual health impacts but also impact on the Nation’s health and bring about economic repercussions.
Process Optimization of Electrospun Fish Sarcoplasmic Protein Based Nanofibers
In recent years, some polymers that are protein, lipid or polysaccharide-based may be used in order to develop biodegradable materials, and their chemical nature determines the physical properties of the resulting films. Among these polymers, proteins from different sources have been extensively employed because of their relative abundance, film forming ability, and nutritional qualities. In this study, biodegradable polymer nanofibers composite films based on fish sarcoplasmic protein (FSP) were prepared via electrospinning technique. Biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) was blended with FSP to obtain hybrid FSP/PCL fiber mats with desirable physical properties. Mixture solutions of FSP and PCL were produced at different ratios of concentrations, and their density, viscosity, and electrical conductivity were measured. Mechanical properties, wettability, and degradation of electrospun nanofibers were evaluated. Morphology of nanofibers composite was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies were used for analysis chemical composition and thermal characteristics of nanofibers composite. This study revealed that the FSP based nanofibers had a good potential to be used in producing edible films for various food applications.
Utilization of Oat in Rabbit Feed for the Development of Healthier Rabbit Meat and Its Impact on Human Blood Lipid Profile
Functional foods may be a good tool that can be simply utilized in reducing community health expenses. Regular consumption of rabbit meat can offer patrons with bioactive components because the manipulation in rabbit feed is much successful to raise the levels of conjugated linoleic acid, ecosapentaenoic acid, decosahexaenoic acid, polyunsaturated fatty acids, selenium, tocopherol etc. and to reduce the ω-3/ω-6 ratio which is performing a major role in curing of cardiovascular and several other diseases. In comparison to the meats of other species, rabbit meat has higher amounts of protein with essential amino acids, especially in the muscles and low cholesterol contents that also have elevated digestibility. The present study was carried out to develop the functional rabbit meat by modifying feed ingredient of rabbit diet. Thirty-day old rabbits were fed with feeds containing 2 % and 4 % oat. The feeding trial was carried out for eight weeks. Rabbits were divided into three different groups and reared for the period of two months. T0 rabbits were considered control group while T1 rabbits were reared on 4% oat, and T2 were on 2% oat in the feed. At the end of the 8 weeks, the rabbits were slaughtered. Results presented in this study concluded that 4 % oat seed supplementation enhanced n-3 PUFA in meat. It was observed that oat seed supplementation also reduced fat percentage in the meat. Utilization of oat in the feed of rabbits significantly affected the pH, protein, fat, textural and concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids. A study trial was conducted in order to examine the impact of functional meat on the blood lipid profile of human subjects. They were given rabbit meat in comparison to the chicken meat for the period of one month. The cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein were found to be lower in blood serum of human subject group treated with 4 % oat meat.
Effect of Sodium Chloride Replacement with Potassium Chloride on Qualities of Longan Seasoning Powder
One of the most important intricacies of cooking is seasoning which is the process of adding salt, herbs, or spices to food to enhance the flavor. Sodium chloride (NaCl) was added in seasoning powder for taste-improving and shelf life of products. However, the raised blood pressure caused by eating too much NaCl may damage the arteries leading to the heart. Interestingly, NaCl replacement with other substance is essential for consumer. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of NaCl replacement with potassium chloride (KCl) on the sensory characteristics and physiochemical properties of longan seasoning powder. Five longan seasoning Powder were replaced sodium chloride with KCl at 0, 25, 50 75 and 100%. Mixture design with 2 replications was performed. Sensory characteristics on overall flavor, saltiness, sweetness, bitterness and overall liking were investigated using 12 descriptive trained panelists. Results revealed that NaCl and KCl had effects on saltiness, bitterness and overall liking. As the level of KCl substituted increased, the overall flavor and sweetness of powdered seasoning from longan were not significantly (p < 0.05). This resulted in the decrease of overall liking of the products. In addition, increasing the level of KCl substituted resulted in the drop of saltiness but out of bitterness of the products. Saltiness of powdered seasoning from longan with replacement levels of 50, 75 and 100% KCl different when compared to that of 0% KCl. Bitterness of powdered seasoning from longan with replacement levels of 50, 75 and 100% KCl different when compared to that of 0% KCl. Moreover, consumer acceptance test was conducted (n=100). In conclusion, the optimum formulation contained of 32.0% longan powder, 28.0% sugar, 15.0% NaCl, 5% KCl, 16.0% pork powder, 3.0% pepper powder, and 3.0% garlic powder that would meet acceptability scores of at least 7 or like moderately.
Proximate Composition of Ocimum gratissimum Leaves (African Basil)
Ocimum gratissimum belongs to the Lamiaceae family and is know generally as African Basil. Ocimum gratissimum leaves are widely used as local condiments in diets. The leaves were destalked sorted, washed with potable water to remove dirts, air dried for 14 days under ambient temperature and milled into powder. The proximate composition and mineral contents of Ocimum gratissimum leaves were investigated. The proximate analysis showed the moisture, crude, protein, total ash, crude fiber, crude lipid and total carbohydrate contents were 10.72±0.01%, 12.98±0.10%, 10.95±0.42, 10.21±0.04%, 4.81±0.04% and 49.01±0.25% respectively. The results of the analysis showed that Ocimum gratissimum could be a good source of important food nutrients.
Microbiological Quality and Safety of Meatball Sold in Payakumbuh City, West Sumatra, Indonesia
The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality and safety of meatball obtained from five different manufacturers around Payakumbuh City, West Sumatra, Indonesia. Microbiological analysis of meatball sample resulted in aerobic plate count range from 7 log CFU/gr to 8.623 log CFU/gr, respectively. Total Coliform range from 1.041 log Most Probable Number (MPN)/gr to 3.380 log MPN/gr, respectively. Chemical analysis of meatball sample consisted of borax and formalin content. The result of qualitative detection of borax and formalin content on all meatball samples were not detected. Thus, it remains essential to include the significance of effective hygiene practices as an important safety measure in consumer education programs.
Effect of Addition Cinnamon Extract (Cinnamomum burmannii) to Water Content, pH Value, Total Lactid Acid Bacteria Colonies, Antioxidant Activity and Cholesterol Levels of Goat Milk Yoghurt Isolates Dadih (Pediococcus pentosaceus)
This study aimed to determine the effect of addition cinnamon extract (Cinnamomum burmannii) in making goat milk yogurt product isolates dadih (Pediococcus pentosaceus) to antioxidant activity and cholesterol levels. The method of research was the experimental method by using a Randomized Block Design (RBD), which consists of 5 treatments with 4 groups as replication. Treatment in this study was used of cinnamon extract as A (0%), B (1%), C (2%), D (3%), E (4%) in a goat’s milk yoghurt. This study was used 4200 ml of Peranakan Etawa goat’s milk and 80 ml of cinnamon extract. The variable analyzed were water content, pH value, total lactic acid bacterial colonies, antioxidant activity and cholesterol levels. The average water content ranged from 81.2-85.56%. Mean pH values rang between 4.74–4.30. Mean total lactic acid bacteria colonies ranged from 3.87 x 10⁸ - 7.95 x 10⁸ CFU/ml. The average of the antioxidant activity ranged between 10.98%-27.88%. Average of cholesterol levels ranged from 14.0 mg/ml–17.5 mg/ml. The results showed that the addition of cinnamon extract in making goat milk yoghurt product isolates dadih (Pediococcus pentosaceus) significantly different (P < 0.05) to water content, pH value, total lactic acid bacterial colonies, antioxidant activity and cholesterol levels. In conclusion, the study shows that using of cinnamon extract 4% is the best in making goat milk yoghurt.
Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) Fruit Quality: Phytochemical Attributes of Some Apricot Cultivars as Affected by Genotype and Ripening
Fruit quality is one of the main concerns of consumers, producers, and distributors. The evolution of apricot fruits undergoes a strong acceleration during maturation, and the rapidity of post-harvest evolution of the ripe fruit is particularly selective in the apricot. The objective of this study is to identify new cultivars with an interesting quality as well as a better yield allowing a more prolonged production over time. The evaluation of the fruit quality of new apricot cultivars from the Marrakech region was carried out by analyzing their physical and biochemical attributes during ripening. The results obtained clearly show a great diversity of the physicochemical attributes of the selected clones. Also, some genotypes of apricots showed contents of sugars, organic acids (vitamin C) and β carotene significantly higher than those of the most famous varieties of Morocco: Canino, Delpatriarca, and Maoui. Principal component analysis (PCA), taking into account the maturity stage and the diversity of cultivars, made it possible to define three groups with similar physicochemical attributes. The results of this study are of great use, particularly for the selection of genotypes with a better quality of fruit, both for consumption or industrial processing and with important contents of physicochemical attributes.
Tackling Food Waste Challenge with Nanotechnology: Controllable Ripening via Metal Organic Framework
Ripening of climacteric fruits, such as bananas and avocados, are usually initiated days prior to the retail marketing. However, upon the onset of irreversible ripening, they undergo rapid spoilage if not consumed within a narrow climacteric time window. Controlled ripening of climacteric fruits is a critical step to provide consumers with high-quality products while reducing postharvest losses and food waste. There is a high demand for technologies that can retard the ripening process or enable accelerated ripening immediately before consumption. In this work, metal−organic framework (MOF) was developed as a solid porous matrix to encapsulate gaseous hormone, including ethylene, for subsequent application. The feasibility of the on-demand stimulated ripening of bananas and avocados is also evaluated. MOF was synthesized and loaded with ethylene gas. The MOF−ethylene was placed inside sealed containers with preclimacteric bananas and avocados and stored at 16 °C. The fruits were treated for 24-48 hours, and evaluated for ripening progress. Results indicate that MOF−ethylene treatment significantly accelerated the ripening-related changes of color and textural properties in treated bananas and avocados. The average ripening period for both avocados and bananas were reduced in half by using this method. No significant differences of quality characteristics at respective ripening stages were observed between produce ripened via MOF-ethylene versus exogenously supplied ethylene gas or endogenously produced ethylene. Solid MOF matrices could have multiple advantages compared to existing systems, including easy to transport and safe to use by minimally trained produce handlers and consumers. We envision that this technology can help tackle food waste challenges at the critical retail and consumer stages in the food supply chain.
Impact of Ethiopia's Productive Safety Net Program on Household Dietary Diversity and Child Nutrition in Rural Ethiopia
Food insecurity and child malnutrition are among the most critical issues in Ethiopia. Accordingly, different reform programs have been carried to improve household food security. The Food Security Program (FSP) (among others) was introduced to combat the persistent food insecurity problem in the country. The FSP combines a safety net component called the Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) started in 2005. The goal of PSNP is to offer multi-annual transfers, such as food, cash or a combination of both to chronically food insecure households to break the cycle of food aid. Food or cash transfers are the main elements of PSNP. The case for cash transfers builds on the Sen’s analysis of ‘entitlement to food’, where he argues that restoring access to food by improving demand is a more effective and sustainable response to food insecurity than food aid. Cash-based schemes offer a greater choice of use of the transfer and can allow a greater diversity of food choice. It has been proven that dietary diversity is positively associated with the key pillars of food security. Thus, dietary diversity is considered as a measure of household’s capacity to access a variety of food groups. Studies of dietary diversity among Ethiopian rural households are somewhat rare and there is still a dearth of evidence on the impact of PSNP on household dietary diversity. In this paper, we examine the impact of the Ethiopia’s PSNP on household dietary diversity and child nutrition using panel household surveys. We employed different methodologies for identification. We exploit the exogenous increase in kebeles’ PSNP budget to identify the effect of the change in the amount of money households received in transfers between 2012 and 2014 on the change in dietary diversity. We use three different approaches to identify this effect: two-stage least squares, reduced form IV, and generalized propensity score matching using a continuous treatment. The results indicate the increase in PSNP transfers between 2012 and 2014 had no effect on household dietary diversity. Estimates for different household dietary indicators reveal that the effect of the change in the cash transfer received by the household is statistically and economically insignificant. This finding is robust to different identification strategies and the inclusion of control variables that determine eligibility to become a PSNP beneficiary. To identify the effect of PSNP participation on children height-for-age and stunting we use a difference-in-difference approach. We use children between 2 and 5 in 2012 as a baseline because by then they have achieved long-term failure to grow. The treatment group comprises children ages 2 to 5 in 2014 in PSNP participant households. While changes in height-for-age take time, two years of additional transfers among children who were not born or under the age of 2-3 in 2012 have the potential to make a considerable impact on reducing the prevalence of stunting. The results indicate that participation in PSNP had no effect on child nutrition measured as height-for-age or probability of beings stunted, suggesting that PSNP should be designed in a more nutrition-sensitive way.
Strategic Innovation of Nanotechnology: Novel Applications of Biomimetics and Microfluidics in Food Safety
Strategic innovation of nanotechnology to promote food safety has drawn tremendous attentions among research groups, which includes the need for research support during the implementation of the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) in the United States. There are urgent demands and knowledge gaps to the understanding of a) food-water-bacteria interface as for how pathogens persist and transmit during food processing and storage; b) minimum processing requirement needed to prevent pathogen cross-contamination in the food system. These knowledge gaps are of critical importance to the food industry. However, the lack of knowledge is largely hindered by the limitations of research tools. Our groups recently endeavored two novel engineering systems with biomimetics and microfluidics as a holistic approach to hazard analysis and risk mitigation, which provided unprecedented research opportunities to study pathogen behavior, in particular, contamination, and cross-contamination, at the critical food-water-pathogen interface. First, biomimetically-patterned surfaces (BPS) were developed to replicate the identical surface topography and chemistry of a natural food surface. We demonstrated that BPS is a superior research tool that empowers the study of a) how pathogens persist through sanitizer treatment, b) how to apply fluidic shear-force and surface tension to increase the vulnerability of the bacterial cells, by detaching them from a protected area, etc. Secondly, microfluidic devices were designed and fabricated to study the bactericidal kinetics in the sub-second time frame (0.1~1 second). The sub-second kinetics is critical because the cross-contamination process, which includes detachment, migration, and reattachment, can occur in a very short timeframe. With this microfluidic device, we were able to simulate and study these sub-second cross-contamination scenarios, and to further investigate the minimum sanitizer concentration needed to sufficiently prevent pathogen cross-contamination during the food processing. We anticipate that the findings from these studies will provide critical insight on bacterial behavior at the food-water-cell interface, and the kinetics of bacterial inactivation from a broad range of sanitizers and processing conditions, thus facilitating the development and implementation of science-based food safety regulations and practices to mitigate the food safety risks.
Evaluating the Effects of Weather and Climate Change to Risks in Crop Production
Different modelling approaches have been used to determine or predict yield of crops in different geographies. Central to the methodologies are the presumption that it is the absolute yield of the crop in a given location that is of the highest priority to those requiring information on crop productivity. Most individuals, companies and organisations within the agri-food sector need to be able to balance the supply of crops with the demand for them. Different modelling approaches have been used to determine and predict crop yield. The growing need to ensure certainty of supply and stability of prices requires an approach that describes the risk in producing a crop. A review of current methodologies to evaluate the risk to food production from changes in the weather and climate is presented.
Evaluation of Knowledge and Acceptance of Food Irradiated by Individual from Food Bank of Brazil
Despite the poverty in the world, a third of all food produced in the world is wasted. FAO, the United Nations Organization of Agriculture and Food, points out the need to combine actions and new technologies to combat hunger and waste in contrast to the high production of food in the world. The energy of ionizing radiation in food brought many positive results, such as increased validity and insect infestation control. The food banks are organizations that act at various points of the food chain to collect and distribute food to the needy. So, the aim of this study was to initiate a partnership between irradiation and the food bank through the development of a questionnaire to evaluate and disseminate the knowledge and acceptance of individuals in the food bank in Brazil. Also, this study aimed to standardize a basis questionnaire for future research assessment of irradiated foods. For the construction of the questionnaire as a measuring instrument, a comprehensive and rigorous literature review was made. It's covered qualitative research, questionnaires, sensory evaluation, and food irradiated. Three stages of pre - tests were necessary, and related fields of experts were consulted. As a result, the questionnaire has three parts, personal issues, assertive issues and questions of multiple choices and finally an informative question. The questionnaire was applied in Ceagesp food bank in the biggest center of food in Brazil. Conclusions. 30 % of participants of Ceagesp bank had already heard of the Food irradiation but did not know about the mechanism, so they rejected the idea to associate with radioactivity and danger. The video showed in the last question and application of the questionnaire disseminated the idea of security. All individuals declare understand the goal of treatment and accept buy and consume irradiated food after them.
Preservation of High Quality Fruit Products: Microwave Freeze Drying as a Substitute for the Conventional Freeze Drying Process
Berries such as blue- and raspberries belong to the most valuable fruits. To preserve the characteristic flavor and the high contents of vitamins and anthocyanins, the very sensitive berries are usually dried by lyophilization. As this method is very time- and energy-consuming, the dried fruit is extremely expensive. However, healthy snack foods are growing in popularity. Especially dried fruit free of any additives or additional sugar are more and more asked for. To make these products affordable, the fruits have to be dried by a method that is more energy-efficient than freeze drying but reveals the same high product quality. The additional insertion of microwaves to a freeze drying process was examined in this work to overcome the inconveniences of freeze drying. As microwaves penetrate the product volumetrically, sublimation takes place simultaneously all over the product and leads to a many times shorter process duration. A range of microwave and pressure settings was applied to find the optimum drying condition. The influence of the process parameters microwave power and chamber pressure on drying kinetics, product temperature and product quality was investigated to find the best condition for an energy-efficient process with high product quality. The product quality was evaluated by rehydration capacitiy, crispiness, shrinkage, color, vitamin C content and antioxidative capacity. The conclusion could be drawn that microwave freeze dried berries were almost equal to freeze dried fruit in all measured quality parameters or even could overcome it. Additionally, sensory evaluations could confirm the analytical studies. Drying time could be reduced by more than 75% at much lower energy consumption rates. Thus, an energy-efficient and cost saving method compared to the conventional freeze drying technique for the gentle production of tasty fruit or vegetable snacks has been found. This technique will make dried high-quality snacks available for many of consumers.
Microwave Freeze Drying of Fruit Foams for the Production of Healthy Snacks
Nutritional quality and taste of dried fruit products is still often unsatisfactory and does not meet anymore the current consumer trends. Dried foams from fruit puree could be an attractive alternative. Due to their open-porous structure, a new sensory perception with a sudden and very intense aroma release could be generated. To make such high quality fruit snacks affordable for the consumer, a gentle but at the same time fast drying process has to be applied. Therefore, microwave-assisted freeze drying of raspberry foams was investigated in this work and compared with the conventional freeze drying technique in terms of nutritional parameters such as antioxidative capacity, anthocyanin content and vitamin C and the physical parameters colour and wettability. The following process settings were applied: 0.01 kPa chamber pressure and a maximum temperature of 30 °C for both freeze and microwave freeze drying. The influence of microwave power levels on the dried foams was investigated between 1 and 5 W/g. Intermediate microwave power settings led to the highest nutritional values, a colour appearance comparable to the undried foam and a proper wettability. A proper process stability could also be guaranteed for these power levels. By the volumetric energy input of the microwaves drying time could be reduced from 24 h in conventional freeze drying to about 6 h. The short drying times further resulted in an equally high maintenance of the above mentioned parameters in both drying techniques. Hence, microwave assisted freeze drying could lead to a process acceleration in comparison to freeze drying and be therefore an interesting alternative drying technique which on industrial scale enables higher efficiency and higher product throughput.
Characteristics of Interaction Forces Acting on a Newly-Design Rotary Blade for Thai Walking Tractor
This research aimed to indeed understand the soil-rotary blade interaction of the newly-design rotary blade for Thai walking tractor. Therefore, this study was carried out to clarify the characteristics of the horizontal and the vertical forces and the moment around a rotary shaft of prototype rotary blade 15 lengthwise slice angle. It was set up and tested in laboratory soil bin at Kasetsart University under sandy loam and clay soil at soil dry bulk density and soil specific weight of 9.81 kN/m3 and 11.3% (d.b.), respectively. The tests were conducted at travel speeds of 0.069 and 0.142 m/s and rotational speeds of 150, 250 and 350 rpm. The characteristic of pushing-forward and lifting-up forces and moment around a rotor shaft were obtained by using the EOR transducer. Also, the acting point of resultant force of these soil-blade reaction forces was determined. The pushing-forward and lifting-up forces, moment around a rotor shaft and resultant force increased at higher travel speed and higher soil moisture content. In tilling stage, the acting points of resultant force located inside the circumstance of the blade locus. The results showed that the variation of magnitude and direction of pushing-forward, lifting-up and resultant forces corresponded to soil-blade interaction of the newly-design in tilling stage.
Protein Stabilized Foam Structures as Protective Carrier Systems during Microwave Drying of Probiotics
Due to the increasing popularity of healthy products, probiotics are still of rising importance in food manufacturing. With the aim to amplify the field of probiotic application to non-chilled products, the cultures have to be preserved by drying. Microwave drying has proved to be a suitable technique to achieve relatively high survival rates, resulting from drying at gentle temperatures, among others. However, diffusion limitation due to compaction of cell suspension during drying can prolong drying times as well as deteriorate product properties (grindability, rehydration performance). Therefore, we aimed to embed probiotics in an aerated matrix of whey proteins (surfactants) and di-/polysaccharides (foam stabilization, probiotic protection) during drying. As a result of the manifold increased inner surface of the cell suspension, drying performance was enhanced significantly as compared to non-foamed suspensions. This work comprises investigations on suitable foam matrices, being stable under vacuum (variation of protein concentration, type and concentration of di-/polysaccharide) as well as development of an applicable microwave drying process in terms of microwave power, chamber pressure and maximum product temperatures. Performed analyses included foam characteristics (overrun, drainage, firmness, bubble sizes), and properties of the dried cultures (survival, activity). In addition, efficiency of the drying process was evaluated.
Preservation of Sensitive Biological Products: An Insight into Conventional and Upcoming Drying Techniques
Several drying techniques are used to preserve sensitive substances such as probiotic lactic acid bacteria. With the aim to better understand differences between these processes, this work gives new insights into structural variations resulting from different preservation methods and their impact on product quality and storage stability. Industrially established methods (freeze drying, spray drying) were compared to upcoming vacuum, microwave-freeze, and microwave-vacuum drying. For freeze and microwave-freeze dried samples, survival and activity maintained 100%, whereas vacuum and microwave-vacuum dried cultures achieved 30-40% survival. Spray drying yielded in lowest viability. The results are directly related to temperature and oxygen content during drying. Interestingly, most storage stable products resulted from vacuum and microwave-vacuum drying due to denser product structures as determined by helium pycnometry and SEM images. Further, lower water adsorption velocities were responsible for lower inactivation rates. Concluding, resulting product structures as well as survival rates and storage stability mainly depend on the type of water removal instead of energy input. Microwave energy compared to conductive heating did not lead to significant differences regarding the examined factors. Correlations could be proven for three investigated microbial strains. The presentation will be completed by an overview on the energy efficiency of the presented methods.
Evaluation of Pictorial Dietary Assessment Tool for Hospitalized Diabetic Patients: Cost, Accuracy and User Satisfaction Analysis
Although nutritional screening and dietary monitoring in clinical settings are important, studies on related user satisfaction and cost benefit are still lacking. This study aimed to: 1) elucidate the cost of implementing a newly developed dietary monitoring tool, the Pictorial Dietary Assessment Tool (PDAT); 2) investigate whether or not the use of the PDAT would increase the accuracy of estimation and satisfaction of health care staff. A cross-over intervention study was conducted among 132 hospitalized diabetic patients. Cost and time for the implementation of PDAT in comparison to Comstock was estimated using activity-based costing approach. Accuracy was expressed as the percentages of energy and protein obtained by both methods, which were within 15% and 30%, respectively, of those obtained by the food weighing. Satisfaction was measured using a standardized questionnaire. Time to complete the food intake recording of patients using PDAT was shorter than when Comstock was used (2.31 ± 0.70 minutes vs 3.53 ± 1.27 minutes, respectively; P < 0.001). Overall cost was slightly higher for PDAT than for Comstock (USD 0.27 ± 0.02 vs 0.26 ± 0.04, respectively; P < 0.05). The accuracy of energy intake estimated by Comstock was 10% lower than that of PDAT. There was poorer accuracy of protein intake estimated by Comstock compared to that taken by the PDAT ( < 40% vs > 71%, respectively; P < 0.05). Mean user satisfaction was significantly higher for PDAT than for Comstock (P < 0.05) for all parameters. PDAT requires a shorter time to be completed and was rated better than Comstock. Only USD 0.01 is needed to increase the accuracy of the estimation of energy intake by 10% and protein intake by 30% when PDAT is being used.
Effect of Different Flours on the Physical and Sensorial Characteristics of Meatballs
Stale breads and rusk flour are used traditionally in meatballs produced in Turkey as a structure enhancer. This study researches the possibilities of using retrograded wheat flour in the meatball production and compares the physical and sensorial characteristics of these meatballs with stale bread (traditional) and rusk (commercial) used meatballs. The cooking loss of meatballs produced with using retrograded flour was similar to that of commercial meatballs. These meatballs have an advantage with respect to cooking loss compared to traditional meatballs. Doses of retrograded flour from 5% to 20% led to a significant decrease in cooking loss, from 21.95% to 6.19%, and in the diameter of meatballs, from 18.60% to 12.74%, but to an increase in the thickness of meatballs, from 28.82% to 41.39%, respectively, compared to the control (0%). The springiness of the traditional meatballs was significantly higher than that of the other meatballs. This might have been due to the bread crumbs having a naturally springy structure. Moreover, the addition of retrograded flour in the meatballs significantly (P< 0.05) affected the hardness, springiness and cohesiveness of the meatballs with respect to textural properties. In conclusion, it is considered that the use of 10% retrograded flour is ideal to improve the sensorial values of meatballs and the properties of their structure.
Drying Kinetics of Vacuum Dried Beef Meat Slices
The vacuum drying behavior of beef slices (10 x 4 x 0.2 cm3) was experimentally investigated at the temperature of 60, 70, and 80°C under 25 mbar ultimate vacuum pressure and the mathematical models (Lewis, Page, Midilli, Two-term, Wangh and Singh and Modified Henderson and Pabis) were used to fit the vacuum drying of beef slices. The increase in drying air temperature resulted in a decrease in drying time. It took approximately 206, 180 and 157 min to dry beef slices from an initial moisture content to a final moisture content of 0.05 kg water/kg dry matter at 60, 70 and 80 °C of vacuum drying, respectively. It is also observed that the drying rate increased with increasing drying temperature. The coefficients (R2), the reduced chi-square (x²) and root mean square error (RMSE) values were obtained by application of six models to the experimental drying data. The best model with the highest R2 and, the lowest x² and RMSE values was selected to describe the drying characteristics of beef slices. The Page model has shown a better fit to the experimental drying data as compared to other models. In addition, the effective moisture diffusivities of beef slices in the vacuum drying at 60 - 80 °C varied in the range of 1.05 – 1.09 x 10-10 m2/s. Consequently, this results can be used to simulate vacuum drying process of beef slices and improve efficiency of the drying process.
Larvicidal Activity of Azadirachtin and Essential Oils from Thymus Capitatus against Prays oleae Bern (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae)
Prays oleae is a major insect of olive in the Mediterranean Region. In an effort to find effective and affordable ways of controlling this pest, larvicidal activity of essential oils from Tunisian Thymus capitatus were analyzed in comparison to Azadirachtin, a biologically active compound insecticide. The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation, and their chemical composition was determined by gas liquid-chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy. The main components of chemical components were oxygenated monoterpenes (60.24%). The most abundant oxygenated monoterpenes were carvacrol (54.11%). Monoterpenes hydrocarbons were much more abundant and dominated by the o-cymene (16.68%). Both active compounds of Azadirachtin and Thymus capitatus oil extracts exhibited significant larvicidal activity against P. oleae with LC50 values 81.30 ppm and 52.49 ppm respectively. Dose-response relationships were established with almost 100% mortality when using the highest dose 100 ppm of T. capitatus oil extracts and 80 ppm of Azadirachtin. At the lowest dose (10 ppm), T. capitatus oil extracts and Azadirachtin caused 60% and 76% larval mortality in 48 hours respectively. The larval mortality rate greatly decreased with increases of the dilution of both oil extract compounds. Larval development duration appeared to be prolonged to about 12 days for larvae feeding on control diet. The maximum antifeedant activity was shown by both T. capitatus oil extract and Azadirachtin at LC90 values (47.5 and 50.1 ppm respectively). Tunisian T. capitatus oil extract used at low concentrations could be considered as eco-friendly promising insecticide similar to Azadirachtin that has significant potential for the biological control of P. oleae.
Econometric Analysis of Organic Vegetable Production in Turkey
Reliable foods must be consumed in terms of healthy nutrition. The production and dissemination of diatom products in Turkey is rapidly evolving on the basis of preserving ecological balance, ensuring sustainability in agriculture and offering quality, reliable products to consumers. In this study, year in Turkey as (2002- 2015) to determine values of such as cultivated land of organic vegetable production, production levels, production quantity, number of products, number of farmers. It is intended to make the econometric analysis of the factors affecting the production of organic vegetable production (Number of products, Number of farmers and cultivated land). The main material of the study has created secondary data in relation to the 2002-2015 period as organic vegetable production in Turkey and regression analysis of the factors affecting the value of production of organic vegetable is determined by the Least Squares Method with EViews statistical software package.
Risk-Based Regulation as a Model of Control in the South African Meat Industry
South African control over meat safety is managed by the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF). Veterinary services department in each of the nine provinces in the country is tasked with overseeing the farm and abattoir segments of the meat supply chain. Abattoirs are privately owned. The number of abattoirs over the years has increased. This increase has placed constraints on government resources required to monitor these abattoirs. This paper presents empirical research results on the hygienic processing of meat in high and low throughout abattoirs. This paper presents a case for the adoption of risk-based regulation as a method of government control over hygiene and safe meat processing at abattoirs in South Africa. Recommendations are made to the DAFF regarding policy considerations on risk-based regulation as a model of control in South Africa.