Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 40418

Psychological and Behavioral Sciences

The Beacon of Collective Hope: Mixed Method Study on the Participation of Indian Youth with Regard to Mass Demonstrations Fueled by Social Activism Media
Rarely does the human mind look at the positive fallout of highly negative events. Positive psychology attempts to emphasize on the strengths and positives for human well-being. The present study examines the underpinning socio-cognitive factors of the protest movements regarding the gang rape case of December 16th, 2012 through the lens of positive psychology. A gamut of negative emotions came to the forum globally: of anger, shame, hatred, violence, death penalty for the perpetrators, amongst other equally strong. In relation to this incident, a number of questions can be raised. Can such a heinous crime have some positive inputs for contemporary society? What is it that has held people to protests for long even when they see faded lines of success in view? This paper explains the constant feeding of protests and continuation of movements by the robust model of Collective Hope by Snyder, a phenomenon unexplored by social psychologists. In this paper, mixed method approach was undertaken. Results confirmed the interaction of various socio-psychological factors that imitated the Snyder’s model of collective hope. Emergence of major themes was: Sense of Agency, Sense of Worthiness, Social Sharing and Common Grievances and Hope of Collective Efficacy. Statistical analysis (correlation and regression) showed a significant relationship between media usage and occurrence of these themes among participants. Media-communication processes and educational theories for the development of citizenship behavior can find implications from these results. Theory development as indicated by theorists working in the area of Social Psychology of Protests can be furthered by the direction of research.
The Effect of Psychological Capital and Psychological Empowerment on Employees' Commitment to Change
Organizations nowadays have to change and adjust themselves to the changing external environment in order to survive the globalization era. However, not all the organizational change had been succeeded. Commitment to change is one important factor why the change process often failed. Even so, this commitment to change cannot be separated with the individual’s characteristic. The aim of this study is to identify the role of psychological capital and psychological empowerment as the individual’s positive characteristic on commitment to change. This research was conducted on Indonesian employees who have or are currently experiencing a change in their organization. Data was collected using Commitment to Change Inventory, Psychological Empowerment Questionnaire, and Psychological Capital Questionnaire. The results showed that both psychological capital and psychological empowerment have a positive and significant influence on commitment to change.
The Effect of Transformational Leadership and Change Self-Efficacy on Employees' Commitment to Change
The pace of globalization and technological development make changes inevitable to organizations. However, organizational change is not easy to implement and is prone to failure. One of the reasons of change failure is due to lack of employees’ commitment to change. There are many variables that can influence employees’ commitment to change. The influencing factors can be sourced from the organization or individuals themselves. This study focuses on the affective form of commitment to change. The objective of this study is to identify the effect of transformational leadership (organizational factor) and employees’ change self-efficacy (individual factor) on affective commitment to change. The respondents of this study were employees who work in organizations that are or have faced organizational change. The data were collected using Affective Commitment to Change, Change Self-Efficacy, and Transformational Leadership Inventory. The data were analyzed using regression. The result showed that both transformational leadership and change self-efficacy have a positive and significant impact on affective commitment to change. The implication of the study can be used for practitioners to enhance the success of organizational change, by developing transformational leadership on the leaders and change self-efficacy on the employees in order to create a high affective commitment to change.
Anxiety Treatment: Comparing Outcomes by Different Types of Providers
With lifetime prevalence rates ranging from 6% to 15%, anxiety disorders are among the most common childhood mental health diagnoses. Anxiety disorders diagnosed in childhood generally show an unremitting course, lead to additional psychopathology and interfere with social, emotional, and academic development. Effective evidence-based treatments include cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI’s). However, if anxious children receive any treatment, it is usually through primary care, typically consists of medication, and very rarely includes evidence-based psychotherapy. Despite the high prevalence of anxiety disorders, there have only been two independent research labs that have investigated long-term results for CBT treatment for all childhood anxiety disorders and two for specific anxiety disorders. Generally, the studies indicate that the majority of youth maintain gains up to 7.4 years after treatment. These studies have not been replicated. In addition, little is known about the additional mental health care received by these patients in the intervening years after anxiety treatment, which seems likely to influence maintenance of gains for anxiety symptoms as well as the development of additional psychopathology during the subsequent years. The original sample consisted of 335 children ages 7 to 17 years (mean 13.09, 53% female) diagnosed with an anxiety disorder in 2010. Medical record review included provider billing records for mental health appointments during the five years after anxiety treatment. The subsample for this study was classified into three groups: 64 children who received CBT in an anxiety disorders clinic, 56 who received treatment from a psychiatrist, and 10 who were seen in a primary care setting. Chi-square analyses resulted in significant differences in mental health care utilization across the five years after treatment. Youth receiving treatment in primary care averaged less than one appointment each year and the appointments continued at the same rate across time. Children treated by a psychiatrist averaged approximately 3 appointments in the first two years and 2 in the subsequent three years. Importantly, youth treated in the anxiety clinic demonstrated a gradual decrease in mental health appointments across time. The nuanced differences will be presented in greater detail. The results of the current study have important implications for developing dissemination materials to help guide parents when they are selecting treatment for their children. By including all mental health appointments, this study recognizes that anxiety is often comorbid with additional diagnoses and that receiving evidence-based treatment may have long-term benefits that are associated with improvements in broader mental health. One important caveat might be that the acuity of mental health influenced the level of care sought by patients included in this study; however, taking this possibility into account, it seems those seeking care in a primary care setting continued to require similar care at the end of the study, indicating little improvement in symptoms was experienced.
Groundwater Influences Wellbeing of Farmers from Semi-Arid Areas of India: Assessment of Subjective Wellbeing
The declining groundwater levels and quality are acknowledged to be affecting the well-being of farmers especially those located in the semi-arid regions where groundwater is the only source of water for domestic and agricultural use. Further, previous studies have identified the need to examine the quality of life of farmers beyond economic parameters and for a shift in setting rural development policy goals to the perspective of beneficiaries. To address these gaps, this paper attempts to ascertain the subjective wellbeing of farmers from two semi-arid regions of India. The study employs the integrated conceptual framework for the assessment of individual and regional subjective wellbeing developed by Larson in 2009 at Australia. The method integrates three domains i.e. society, natural environment and economic services consisting of 37 wellbeing factors. The original set of 27 revised wellbeing factors identified by John Ward is further revised in current study to make it more region specific. Generally, researchers in past studies select factors of wellbeing based on literature and assign the weights arbitrary. In contrast, the present methodology employs a unique approach by asking respondents to identify the factors most important to their wellbeing and assign weights of importance based on their responses. This method minimises the selection bias and assesses the wellbeing from farmers’ perspectives. The primary objectives of this study are to identify key wellbeing attributes and to assess the influence of groundwater on subjective wellbeing of farmers. Findings from 507 farmers from 11 villages of two watershed areas of Rajasthan and Gujarat, India chosen randomly and were surveyed using a structured face-to-face questionnaire are presented in this paper. The results indicate that significant differences exist in the ranking of wellbeing factors at individual, village and regional levels. The top five most important factors in the study areas include electricity, irrigation infrastructure, housing, land ownership, and income. However, respondents are also most dissatisfied with these factors and correspondingly perceive a high influence of groundwater on them. The results thus indicate that intervention related to improvement of groundwater availability and quality will greatly improve the satisfaction level of well-being factors identified by the farmers.
Adaptation of Positive Mental Health Scale into Turkish
Positive psychology is a novel approach to mental health which offers the viewpoint that certain positive human characteristics are indicative of mental health and that there is more to mental health than nonexistence of mental illness. The present study was designed to investigate the psychometric properties and dimensionality of Positive Mental Health Scale in Turkish university students. Participants consisted of 317 university students (216 female, 101 male) between the ages of 18-24 (M=20.64, SD=1.61). Results of confirmatory factor analysis revealed that current data fit the original one-factor model. Cronbach alpha for the overall scale was .88. Convergent validity was assessed by applying Life Orientation Test, Depression-Happiness Scale, Oxford Happiness Scale, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, and General Self-Efficacy Scale along with Positive Mental Health Scale. As expected, positive mental health displayed significant positive correlations with optimism (.59), happiness (.72, .56), and general self-efficacy (.51) whereas it displayed significant negative correlations with depression (-.41), anxiety (-.36), and stress (-.36). Positive mental health scores were examined in terms of age and gender differences and no significant differences were found. In conclusion, the adapted version of the scale is valid and reliable in the sample of Turkish university students.
Studying the Effect of Heartfulness Meditation on Brain Activity
Long-term meditation practice is increasingly recognized for its health benefits. Among a diversity of contemplative traditions, heartfulness meditation represents a quickly growing set of practices that is largely unstudied. Heartfulness is unique in that it is a meditation practice that focuses on the heart. It helps individuals to connect to themselves and find inner peace while meditating. In order to deepen ones’ meditation on the heart, the element of Yogic Energy (‘pranahuti’) is used as an aid during meditation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether consistent EEG effects of Heartfulness meditation be observed in sixty experienced Heartfulness meditators, each of whom attended 6 testing sessions. In each session, participants performed three conditions: a set of cognitive tasks, Heartfulness guided relaxation, and Heartfulness Meditation. To measure EEG, the MUSE EEG head band (product of Interaxon Inc) was used. Participants during the cognitive portion were required to answer questions that tested their logical thinking (Cognitive Reflective Test) and creative thinking skills. (Random Associative Test) The order of condition was randomly counter balanced across six sessions. It was hypothesized that Heartfulness meditation would bring increased alpha (8-12Hz) brain activity during meditation and better cognitive task scores in sessions where the tasks followed meditation. Results show that cognitive task scores were higher after meditation in both CRT and RAT, suggesting stronger right brain and left brain activation. Heartfulness meditation produces a significant decrease in brain activity (as indexed by higher levels of alpha) during the early stages of meditation. As the meditation progressed deep meditative state (as indexed by higher levels of delta) was observed until the end of the condition. This lead to the conclusion that heartfulness meditation produces a state that is clearly distinguishable from effortful problem solving and increases neuroplasticity.
The Role of Personality, Authoritarianism, Numeracy, Thinking Styles and Cognitive Biases in the United Kingdom's 2016 Referendum on European Union Membership
The United Kingdom’s 2016 referendum on European Union (EU) membership was one of the most divisive political choices presented to its electorate in a generation, yet relatively few papers have explored the roles personality traits and authoritarianism play in relation to public support for European integration. Furthermore, and in the same context, no prior research exists that examines the role of numeracy, thinking styles and cognitive biases including ideologically motivated reasoning, framing and the Dunning-Kruger effect. These are important considerations given the extent of misinterpretable and arguably misleading numerical information published in the run-up to the vote and the high proportion of adults in the UK with low numeracy skills. The present research captured responses to both self-report questionnaires and controlled experiments delivered via 6 web-based studies with a total of 11,517 participants. Differences in personality traits, levels of authoritarianism, numeracy and thinking styles were assessed with validated self-report questionnaires, while participant’s susceptibility to cognitive biases were assessed using controlled experiments. Participants expressing an intent to vote to leave the EU reported significantly higher levels of authoritarianism and conscientiousness, and lower levels of openness than voters expressing an intent to vote to remain. When compared with Remain voters, Leave voters displayed significantly lower levels of numeracy and appeared more reliant on impulsive ‘System 1’ thinking. In the experimental studies, voters on both sides were, for the most part, found to be similarly susceptible to the cognitive biases tested, specifically ideological motivated reasoning, framing and the Dunning-Kruger effect. These results raise important questions regarding the use and framing of numerical data for public consumption. Not only do many voters lack the skills to critically evaluate the numerical data which is being presented, their inherent biases clearly influence the way in which they process information. In the context of European integration, it is a plausible conjecture that these biases are predominantly shaped by differences in authoritarianism.
The Socio-Demographics of HIV-Infected Persons with Psychological Morbidity in Zaria, Nigeria
Background: It is estimated that more than 330 million persons are living with HIV-infection globally and in Nigeria about 3.4 persons are living with the infection, with an annual death rate of 180,000. Psychological morbidity often accompany chronic illnesses and may be associated with substance abuse, poor health seeking behavior and adherence to treatment program; it may worsen existing health problems and the overall quality of life. Until the burden is effectively identified, intervention cannot be planned. Until there is a cure, the goal is to manage and cope effectively with HIV-infection. Little if any studies have been done in this area in the North West geo-political zone of Nigeria. The study would help to identify high risk groups and prevent the progression and spread of the infection. Aim: To identify HIV-infected persons with psychological morbidity, accessing HIV- clinic at Shika Hospital, Zaria, Kaduna State; and analyze their socio-demographic profile. Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out to assess and analyze the socio-demographic characteristics of HIV-infected persons attending Shika hospital Zaria Nigeria, who screened positive for psychological morbidity. A total of 109 HIV-infected persons receiving HAART at Shika clinic, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria, were administered questionnaires, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12)measuring psychological morbidity and socio-demographic data. The participants ranged in age between 18 and 75 years. Results: Data were analyzed using SPSS software 15. Both descriptive and inferential Statistics were performed on the data. Results indicate a total prevalent rate of psychological morbidity of 78 percent among participants. Of this, about 16.2 percent were severely distressed, 25.1 percent moderately distressed and 36.7percent were mildly distressed. More females (65 percent of those with psychological morbidity) were found to be distressed than their male (55 percent) counterparts. It was (44 percent) for patients whose HIV-infection was of relatively shorter duration(2-4 years) than those of longer duration(5-9 years; and 10 years/above). The age group (21-30 years) was the most affected (35 percent). The rate was also 55 percent for Christians and 45 percent for Muslims. For married patients with partners it was 20 percent and for singles 30 percent; for the widowed (12 percent) and divorced (38 percent). At the level of tribal/ethnic groups, it was 13 percent for Ibos, 22 percent for Yorubas, 27 percent for Hausas and 33 percent for all the other minority tribes put together. Conclusion/Recommendation: The study has been able to identify the presence of psychological morbidity among HIV-infected persons as high and analyze the socio-demographic factors associated with it as significant. Periodic screening of HIV-infected persons for psychological morbidity and psychosocial intervention was recommended.
Application of Container Technique to High-Risk Children: Its Effect on Their Levels of Stress, Anxiety and Depression
Container is one of the techniques used in Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EDMR) Therapy. This paper presents the positive results of applying Container technique to “high risk children”. The sample for this research is composed of 60 “high risk children” whose ages range from 11 to 18 years old, housed in Ho Chi Minh City Youth Center. They have been under the program of the Worldwide Orphans Foundation since August 2015 for various reasons such as, loss of parents, anti-social behaviors, homelessness, child labor among others. These “high risk children” are under high levels of stress, anxiety and depression. The subjects were divided into two groups: the control and the experimental with 30 members each. The experimental group was applied Container Technique and the instruments used to measure their levels of stress, anxiety, and depression are DASS-42 and ASEBA. Results show that after applying the Container Technique to the experimental group, there are significant differences between the two groups’ levels of stress, anxiety and depression. The experimental group’s levels of stress, anxiety and depression decreased significantly. The results serve as a basis for the researchers to make an appeal to psychologists to apply Container Technique in doing psychological treatment in a suitable context.
The Development of Space-Time and Space-Number Associations: The Role of Non-Symbolic vs. Symbolic Representations
The idea that people use space representations to think about time and number received support from several lines of research. However, how these representations develop in children and then shape space-time and space-number mappings is still a debated issue. In the present study, 40 children (20 pre-schoolers and 20 elementary-school children) performed 4 main tasks, which required the use of more concrete (non-symbolic) or more abstract (symbolic) space-time and space-number associations. In the non-symbolic conditions, children were required to order pictures of everyday-life events occurring in a specific temporal order (Temporal sequences) and of quantities varying in numerosity (Numerical sequences). In the symbolic conditions, they were asked to perform the typical time-to-position and number-to-position tasks by mapping time-related words and numbers onto lines. Results showed that children performed reliably better in the non-symbolic Time conditions than the symbolic Time conditions, independently of age, whereas only pre-schoolers performed worse in the Number-to-position task (symbolic) as compared to the Numerical sequence (non-symbolic) task. In addition, only older children mapped time-related words onto space following the typical left-right orientation, pre-schoolers’ performance being somewhat mixed. In contrast, mapping numbers onto space showed a clear left-right orientation, independently of age. Overall, these results indicate a cross-domain difference in the way younger and older children process time and number, with time-related tasks being more difficult than number-related tasks only when space-time tasks require symbolic representations.
Locus of Control and Sense of Happiness: A Mediating Role of Self-Esteem
Background/Objectives and Goals: Recent interest in positive psychology is reflected in a plenty of studies conducted on its basic constructs (e.g. self-esteem and happiness) in interrelation with personality features, social rules, business and technology development. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mediating role of self-esteem, exploring the relationships between self-esteem and happiness, self-esteem and locus of control (LOC). It hypothesizes that self-esteem may be interpreted as a predictor of happiness and mediator in the locus of control establishment. A plenty of various empirical studies results have been analyzed in order to collect data for this theoretical study, and some of the analysed results can be considered as arguable or incoherent. However, the majority of results indicate a strong relationship between three considered concepts: self-esteem, happiness, the locus of control. Methods: In particular, this study addresses the following broad research questions: i) Is self-esteem just an index of global happiness? ii) May happiness be possible or realizable without a healthy self-confidence and self-acceptance? iii) To what extent does self-esteem influence on the level of happiness? iv) Is high self-esteem a sufficient condition for happiness? v) Is self-esteem is a strong predictor of internal locus of control maintenance? vi) Is high self-esteem related to internal LOC, while low self-esteem to external LOC? In order to find the answers for listed questions, 60 reliable sources have been analyzed, results of what are discussed more detailed below. Expected Results/Conclusion/Contribution:It is recognized that the relationship between self-esteem, happiness, locus of control is complex: internal LOC is contributing to happiness, but it is not directly related to it; self-esteem is a powerful and important psychological factor in mental health and well-being; the feelings of being worthy and empowered are associated with significant achievements and high self-esteem; strong and appropriate self-esteem (when the discrepancy between “ideal” and “real” self is balanced) is correlated with more internal LOC (when the individual tends to believe that personal achievements depend on possessed features, vigor, and persistence). Despite the special attention paid to happiness, the locus of control and self-esteem, independently, theoretical and empirical equivocations within each literature foreclose many obvious predictions about the nature of their empirical distinction. In terms of theoretical framework, no model has achieved consensus as an ultimate theoretical background for any of the mentioned constructs. To be able to clarify the relationship between self-esteem, happiness, and locus of control more interdisciplinary studies have to take place in order to get data on heterogeneous samples, provided from various countries, cultures, and social groups.
Creativity and Intelligence: Psychoeducational Connections
Creativity and intelligence are concepts that have aroused very expressive interest in the field of educational sciences and the field of psychological science since the middle of the last century since they have a great impact on the potential and well-being of individuals. However, due to progress in cognitive and positive psychology, there has been a growing interest in the psychoeducational domain of intelligence and creativity in the last decade. In this theoretical work, are analyzed comparatively the theoretical models that relate the intelligence and the creativity, are analyzed several psychoeducational intervention programs that have been implemented with a view to the promotion of creativity and signal possibilities, realities and ironies around the psychological evaluation of intelligence and creativity. In order to reach a broad perspective on creativity, the evidence is presented that points the need to evaluate different psychological domains. The psychoeducational intervention programs addressed have, with a common characteristic, the full stimulation of the creative potential of the participants, assumed as a highly valued capacity at the present time. The results point to the systematize that all interventions in the ambit of creativity have two guiding principles: all individuals can be creative, and creativity is a capacity that can be stimulated. This work refers to the importance of stimulus creativity in educational contexts, to the usefulness and pertinence of the creation, the implementation, and monitoring of flexible curricula, adapted to the educational needs of students, promoting a collaborative work among teachers, parents, students, psychologists, managers and educational administrators.
Investigation of Possible Behavioural and Molecular Effects of Mobile Phone Exposure on Rats
The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-dependent pathway is the major intracellular signalling pathway implemented in both short- and long-term memory formation in the hippocampus which is the most studied brain structure because of its well documented role in learning and memory. However, little is known about the effects of RF-EMR exposure on NMDA receptor signalling pathway including activation of protein kinases, notably Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha (CaMKIIα). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute and chronic 900MHz RF-EMR exposure on both passive avoidance behaviour and hippocampal levels of CaMKIIα and it is phosphorylated form (pCaMKIIα). Rats were divided into the following groups: Sham rats, and rats exposed to 900MHz RF-EMR for 2 h/day for 1 week (acute group) or 10 weeks (chronic group), respectively. Passive avoidance task was used as a behavioural method. The hippocampal levels of selected kinases were measured using Western Blotting technique. The results of passive avoidance task showed that both acute and chronic exposure to 900MHz RF-EMR can impair passive avoidance behaviour with minor effects on chronic group of rats. The analysis of western blot data of selected protein kinases demonstrated that hippocampal levels of CaMKIIα and pCaMKIIα were significantly higher in chronic group of rats as compared to acute groups. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that different duration times (1 week vs 10 weeks) of 900MHz RF-EMR exposure has different effects on both passive avoidance behaviour of rats and hippocampal levels of selected protein kinases.
Core Self-Evaluation and Self-Compassion as Pathways to Psychological Resilience of College Students
Due to the increasing prevalence of suicide and other suicide-related behaviors, recent years have seen a growing interest into resilience to suicidality, which has been described as a perception or set of beliefs which buffer individuals from suicidality in the face of stressors. Due to the limited published researches that have studied certain psychological factors which may confer resilience, the current study examined the direct relationship and contribution of core self-evaluations and self-compassion to psychological resilience among college students with suicidal ideation. Participants (N=112, Mage=18.94 years, range 16-24 years, 59% female, 41% male) from six different schools in Manila were given measures for core self-evaluations, self-compassion, and psychological resilience. Through correlation and regression analysis, the results indicated that core self-evaluations and self-compassion were directly and significantly related to psychological resilience while at the same time, being excellent predictors of psychological resilience.
A Correlational Study on Internet Addiction and Depression among Students
The present investigation was intended to ascertain the relationship between internet addiction and depression among students. The sample of the study consisted of 100 (50 male and 50 female) students participants. The Internet Addiction Questionnaire developed by Dr. Kimberly Young (1966) and Beck’s Depression Inventory (1996) were used for the data collection. Pearson’s correlation was applied to study the relationship between overall internet addiction as well as different dimensions of internet addiction and depression. Correlation between overall internet addiction and depression was found significant while only Time or Control (r=.239), dimension was found significantly correlated with depression. But, other dimensions of internet addiction i.e. Social or Emotional (r=.106), Excitatory or Compensatory (r=.166), Adverse Outcomes (r=.206) are insignificantly correlated among male group while among female group Time or Control (r=.288), and Adverse Outcomes (r=.337) dimensions are significantly correlated with depression, but Social or Emotional (r=.174), Excitatory or Compensatory (r=.063), are insignificantly correlated with depression. The difference of internet addiction among male and female was found (t=2.75, p=0.01) which is significant at 0.01 level of significance while depression insignificantly differs among male and female. Further, differences were examined with different dimensions of internet addiction among male and female students i.e. Time or Control (t=1.94), Social or Emotional (t=3.28, p=0.01), Excitatory or Compensatory (t=1.70), Adverse Outcomes (t=1.84). Where it was found that only social or emotional dimension of internet addiction is significantly different among male and female but other dimensions have no difference. Findings of the study show that depression and internet addiction positively correlated with each other, it means that when internet addiction increases then depression also increases and vice versa.
Psychological Sense of School Membership and Coping Ability as Predictors of Multinational Life Satisfaction among School Children
Children in the developing countries have complex social, economic, political and environmental contexts that create a wide range of challenges for school children to surmount as they journey through school from childhood to adolescent. Many of these children have little or no personal resources and social support to confront these challenges. This study employed a descriptive research design of survey type to investigate the psychological sense of school membership and coping skills as they relate to the multidimensional life satisfaction of the school children. The sample consists of 835 school children with the age range of 7-11 years who were randomly selected from twenty schools in Ondo state, Nigeria. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire consisting of 4 sections A, B, C and D. Section A contained items on the children’s bio-data (Age, School, father’s and mother’s educational qualifications), section B is the Multidimensional Children Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (MCLSQ) with a 20 item Likert type scale. The response format range from Never= 1 to Almost always =4. The (MCLSQ) was designed to provide profile of children satisfaction with important domains of (school, family and friends). Section C is the Psychological Sense of School Membership Questionnaire (PSSMQ) with 18 items having response format ranging from Not at true=1 to completely true=5. While section D is the Self-Report Coping Questionnaire (SRCQ) which has 16 items with response ranging from Never =1 to Always=5. The instrument has a test-retest reliability coefficient of r = 0.87 while the sectional reliabilities for MCLSQ, PSSMQ and SRCQ are 0.86, 0.92 and 0.89 respectively. The results indicated that self-report coping skill was significantly correlated with multidimensional life satisfaction (r=592;p< 0.05). However, the correlation between multidimensional life satisfaction and psychological sense of school membership was not significant (r=0.038;p>0.05). The regression analysis indicated that the contribution of mother’s education and father’s education to psychological sense of school member of the children were 0.923, Adjusted R2 is 0.440 and 0.730 and Adjusted R2 is 0.446. The results also indicate that contribution of gender to psychological sense of school for male and female has R= 0.782, Adjusted R2 = 0.478 and R = 0.998, Adjusted R2 i= 0.932 respectively. In conclusion, mother’s education qualification was found to contribute more to children psychological sense of membership and multidimensional life satisfaction than father’s. The girl child was also found to have more sense of belonging to the school setting than boy child. The counselling implications and recommendations among others were geared towards positive emotional gender sensitivity with regards to the male folk. Education stakeholders are also encouraged to make the school environment more conducive and gender friendly.
The Student Voice in Wellbeing: A Case Study of Participant Action Research in Positive Education
Positive education views school as a place where students not only shape their intellect, but also cultivate a broad set of character strengths, virtues, and competencies to support their well-being. Although research and application in positive education is growing, there has been little research involving the student voice in the development and implementation of a school’s positive education strategy. Frequently assumptions are made about what might be best for student wellbeing, with little input from the students themselves. This study investigates the value of involving students using a framework of participatory action research (PAR). PAR is a form of collective inquiry undertaken by the people directly affected by the issue. This paper describes a case study of PAR carried out by students at a publically funded Australian school aiming to implement positive education. Ten adolescent students made up the PAR group (M=14.9 years, 50% female) and a comparison group (n = 9, M=15.3 years, 56% female) was used for indications of any school-wide effect. The PAR group researched the school community regarding wellbeing and learning during the school year. Mixed methods examined developmental benefits (well-being, self-efficacy, autonomy, social and emotional assets, and other competencies). Student involvement allowed the school to have greater understanding of their students’ wellbeing, and student-led communication about positive education was considered to have laid the groundwork for its eventual implementation. Among the PAR students, developmental benefits were found and results of the comparison group indicated this was not a school-wide effect. This realistically scaled study suggests that involving students using a framework of PAR is a promising, accessible, evidence-based, and developmentally beneficial approach to the implementation of positive education.
Introducing, Testing, and Evaluating a Unified JavaScript Framework for Professional Online Studies
Online-based research has recently gained increasing attention from various fields of research in the cognitive sciences. Technological advances in the form of online crowdsourcing (Amazon Mechanical Turk), open data repositories (Open Science Framework), and online analysis (Ipython notebook) offer rich possibilities to improve, validate, and speed up research. However, until today there is no cross-platform integration of these subsystems. Furthermore, implementation of online studies still suffers from the complex implementation (server infrastructure, database programming, security considerations etc.). Here we propose and test a new JavaScript framework that enables researchers to conduct any kind of behavioral research in the browser without the need to program a single line of code. In particular our framework offers the possibility to manipulate and combine the experimental stimuli via a graphical editor, directly in the browser. Moreover, we included an action-event system that can be used to handle user interactions, interactively change stimuli properties or store participants’ responses. Besides traditional recordings such as reaction time, mouse and keyboard presses, the tool offers webcam based eye and face-tracking. On top of these features our framework also takes care about the participant recruitment, via crowdsourcing platforms such as Amazon Mechanical Turk. Furthermore, the build in functionality of google translate will ensure automatic text translations of the experimental content. Thereby, thousands of participants from different cultures and nationalities can be recruited literally within hours. Finally, the recorded data can be visualized and cleaned online, and then exported into the desired formats (csv, xls, sav, mat) for statistical analysis. Alternatively, the data can also be analyzed online within our framework using the integrated Ipython notebook. The framework was designed such that studies can be used interchangeably between researchers. This will support not only the idea of open data repositories but also constitutes the possibility to share and reuse the experimental designs and analyses such that the validity of the paradigms will be improved. Particularly, sharing and integrating the experimental designs and analysis will lead to an increased consistency of experimental paradigms. To demonstrate the functionality of the framework we present the results of a pilot study in the field of spatial navigation that was conducted using the framework. Specifically, we recruited over 2000 subjects with various cultural backgrounds and consequently analyzed performance difference in dependence on the factors culture, gender and age. Overall, our results demonstrate a strong influence of cultural factors in spatial cognition. Such an influence has not yet been reported before and would not have been possible to show without the massive amount of data collected via our framework. In fact, these findings shed new lights on cultural differences in spatial navigation. As a consequence we conclude that our new framework constitutes a wide range of advantages for online research and a methodological innovation, by which new insights can be revealed on the basis of massive data collection.
Personality Composition in Senior Management Teams: The Importance of Homogeneity in Dynamic Managerial Capabilities
As a result of increasingly dynamic business environments, the creation and fostering of dynamic capabilities, [those capabilities that enable sustained competitive success despite of dynamism through the awareness and reconfiguration of internal and external competencies], supported by organisational learning [a dynamic capability] has gained increased and prevalent momentum in the research arena. Presenting findings funded by the Economic Social Research Council, this paper investigates the extent to which Senior Management Team (SMT) personality (at the trait and facet level) is associated with the creation of dynamic managerial capabilities at the team level, and effective organisational learning/knowledge sharing within the firm. In doing so, this research highlights the importance of micro-foundations in organisational psychology and specifically dynamic capabilities, a field which to date has largely ignored the importance of psychology in understanding these important and necessary capabilities. Using a direct measure of personality (NEO PI-3) at the trait and facet level across 32 high technology and finance firms in the UK, their CEOs (N=32) and their complete SMTs [N=212], a new measure of dynamic managerial capabilities at the team level was created and statistically validated for use within the work. A quantitative methodology was employed with regression and gap analysis being used to show the empirical foundations of personality being positioned as a micro-foundation of dynamic capabilities. The results of this study found that personality homogeneity within the SMT was required to strengthen the dynamic managerial capabilities of sensing, seizing and transforming, something which was required to reflect strong organisational learning at middle management level [N=533]. In particular, it was found that the greater the difference [t-score gaps] between the personality profiles of a Chief Executive Officer (CEO) and their complete, collective SMT, the lower the resulting self-reported nature of dynamic managerial capabilities. For example; the larger the difference between a CEOs level of dutifulness, a facet contributing to the definition of conscientiousness, and their SMT’s level of dutifulness, the lower the reported level of transforming, a capability fundamental to strategic change in a dynamic business environment. This in turn directly questions recent trends, particularly in upper echelons research highlighting the need for heterogeneity within teams. In doing so, it successfully positions personality as a micro-foundation of dynamic capabilities, thus contributing to recent discussions from within the strategic management field calling for the need to empirically explore dynamic capabilities at such a level.
Relationship between Functionality and Cognitive Impairment in Older Adult Woman from the Southeast of Mexico
This study explores the relationship between the level of functionality and cognitive impairment in the older adult woman from the southeast of Mexico. It is a descriptive, cross-sectional study; performed with 172 participants in total who attended a health institute and live in Merida, Yucatan Mexico. After a non-probabilistic sampling, Barthel and Pffeifer scales were applied. The results show a statistically significant correlation between the cognitive impairment (Pffeifer) and the levels of independence and function (Barthel) (r =.489; p =.001). Both determine a dependence level, so they need either a little or a lot of help. Society needs that the older woman is healthy and that the professionals of mental health develop activities to prevent and rehabilitate because cognitive impairment and function are directly related to the quality of life.
Family Functionality in Mexican Children with Congenital and Non-Congenital Deafness
A total of 100 primary caregivers (mothers, fathers, grandparents) with at least one son or grandchild with a diagnosis of congenital bilateral profound deafness were evaluated in order to evaluate the functionality of families with a deaf member. Which were evaluated by specialists in audiology, molecular biology, genetics, and psychology; After confirmation of clinical diagnosis, DNA from patients and parents were analyzed in search of the 35delG deletion of the GJB2 gene to determine who possessed the mutation. All primary caregivers were provided psychological support regardless of whether or not they had the mutation, prior and subsequent; the family APGAR test was applied. All parents, grandparents, and mothers were informed of the results of the genetic analysis during the psychological intervention. The family APGAR after psychological and genetic counseling showed that 14% perceived their families as functional, 62% moderately functional and 24% dysfunctional. This shows the importance of psychological support in family functionality that has a direct impact on the quality of life of these families.
The Efficacy of Positive Psychotherapy and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Depressive Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Background and aim of the study: The present study examines the efficacy of Positive Psychotherapy (PPT) developed by Rashid and Seligman, which is a new approach to the treatment of emotional disorders (depression, anxiety, stress disorders), and contrasts it with the well-established standard intervention against depression, Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT). PPT bases upon the assumption that depression can be treated effectively not only by reducing its negative symptoms but primarily and exclusively also by building up resources and strengths, and promoting happiness and well-being. Method: A total of 92 patients who met DSM-IV criteria for depressive disorder (major depression, dysthymia) based upon SCID-I Interviews were randomly assigned either to the PPT group or to the CBT group in a two-center study. Both treatments lasted for 14 weeks; manualized therapy was administered in a one trained therapist setting in small groups of 6 to 7 patients each in a weekly 2-hours-session schedule. The primary outcome measures were posttreatment remission rates on patient-reported (Beck-Depression Scale, BDI-II) and observer-rated (Montgomery Asberg-Depression-Scale, MADS) depression, as well as on patient-rated rates of happiness based on the Positive Psychotherapy Inventory (PPTI), the Flourishing Scale (FS) and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). Secondary outcome measures included the Global Severity Index (GSI) of the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and satisfaction with treatment scale. Data were analyzed using completer as well as intention-to-treat-samples (last observation carried forward, LOCF). Results: Positive Psychotherapy treatment showed consistently moderate to high effect sizes compared to cognitive-behavioral treatment. Moreover, Positive Psychotherapy treatment resulted in higher effects in all outcome measures than CBT did, primarily concerning the remission rate of depression, the reduction of the level of symptomatic distress currently experienced by the individual and a higher level of felt happiness and meaning of life. Intention to treat analysis resulted into lower effects, however, did not come to different results than completer analysis. Conclusions: The present state of data analysis suggests that Positive Psychotherapy is a very effective and promising systematic approach to the treatment of emotional disorders, especially depression. Data collection, however, is not yet completed. Data concerning the stability of the outcomes are to be collected next and will be available within the next 4 months.
Self-Determination Theory at the Workplace: Associations between Need Satisfaction and Employment Outcomes
The unemployment rate has been on the rise since the outbreak of the global financial crisis in 2008. Especially labor market entrants suffer from economic downfall. Despite the abundance of programs and agencies that help to reintegrate unemployed youth, considerable less research attention has been paid to 'fit' between these programs and its participants that ensure a durable labor market transition. According to Self-Determination Theory, need satisfaction is associated with better (mental) adjustment. As such, three hypothesis were formulated: when workers’ needs for competence (H1), relatedness (H2), and autonomy (H3) are satisfied in the workplace, they are more likely to remain employed at the same employer. To test these assumptions, a sample of approximately 800 young people enrolled in a youth unemployment policy participated in a longitudinal study. The unemployment policy was aimed at the development of generic and vocational competences, and had a maximum duration of six months. Need satisfaction during the program was measured, as well as their employment outcomes up to 12 months after completion of the policy. All hypotheses were (partly) supported. Some limitations should be noted. First, since our sample consisted primarily of highly educated white graduates, it remains to be tested whether our results generalize to other groups of unemployed youth. Moreover, we are unable to conclude whether the results are due to the intervention, participants (selection effect), or both, because of the lack of a control group.
The Impact of Insomnia on the Academic Performance of Mexican Medical Students: Gender Perspective
Insomnia is a disorder characterized by difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep or both. It negatively affects the life quality of people, it hinders the concentration, attention, memory, motor skills, among other abilities that complicate work or learning. Some studies show that women are more susceptible to insomnia. Medicine curricula usually involve a great deal of theoretical and memory content, especially in the early years of the course. The way to accredit a university course is to demonstrate the level of competence or acquired knowledge. In Mexico the most widely used form of measurement is written exams, with numerical scales results. The prevalence of sleep disorders in university students is usually high, so it is important to know if insomnia has an effect on school performance in men and women. A cross-sectional study was designed that included a probabilistic sample of 118 regular students from the School of Medicine of the Autonomous University of Yucatan, Mexico. All on legally age. The project was authorized by the School of Medicine and all the ethical implications of the case were monitored. Participants completed anonymously the following questionnaires: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Insomnia Severity Index, AUDIT test, epidemiological and clinical data. Academic performance was assessed by the average number of official grades earned on written exams, as well as the number of approved or non-approved courses. These data were obtained officially through the corresponding school authorities. Students with at least one unapproved course or average less than 70 were considered to be poor performers. With all courses approved and average between 70-79 as regular performance and with an average of 80 or higher as a good performance. Statistical analysis: t-Student, difference of proportions and ANOVA. 65 men with a mean age of 19.15 ± 1.60 years and 53 women of 18.98 ± 1.23 years, were included. 96% of the women and 78.46% of the men sleep in the family home. 16.98% of women and 18.46% of men consume tobacco. Most students consume caffeinated beverages. 3.7% of the women and 10.76% of the men complete criteria of harmful consumption of alcohol. 98.11% of the women and 90.76% of the men are perceived with poor sleep quality. Insomnia was present in 73% of women and 66% of men. Women had higher levels of moderate insomnia (p=0.02) compared to men and only one woman had severe insomnia. 50.94% of the women and 44.61% of the men had poor academic performance. 18.86% of women and 27% of men performed well. Only in the group of women we found a significant association between poor performance with mild (p= 0.0035) and moderate (p=0.031) insomnia. The medical students reported poor sleep quality and insomnia. In women, levels of insomnia were associated with poor academic performance.
Analyze Needs for Training on Academic Procrastination Behavior on Students in Indonesia
The emergence of academic procrastination behavior among students in Indonesian, especially the students of Faculty of Psychology at YARSI University becomes a habit to be underestimated, so often interfere with the effectiveness of learning process. The lecturers at the Faculty of Psychology YARSI University have very often warned students to be able to do and collect assignments accordance to predetermined deadline. However, they are still violated it. According to researchers, this problem needs to do a proper training for the solution to minimize academic procrastination behavior on students. In this study, researchers conducted analyze needs for deciding whether need the training or not. Number of sample is 30 respondents which being choose with a simple random sampling. Measurement of academic procrastination behavior is using the theory by McCloskey (2011), there are six dimensions: Psychological Belief about Abilities, Distractions, Social Factor of Procrastination, Time Management, Personal Initiative, Laziness. Methods of analyze needs are using Questioner, Interview, Observations, Focus Group Discussion (FGD), Intelligence Tests. The result of analyze needs shows that psychology students generation of 2015 at the Faculty of Psychology YARSI University need for training on Time Management.
Understanding Mathematics Achievements among U. S. Middle School Students: A Bayesian Multilevel Modeling Analysis with Informative Priors
This paper aims to understand U.S. middle school students’ mathematics achievements by examining relevant student and school-level predictors. Through a variance component analysis, the study first identifies evidence supporting the use of multilevel modeling. Then, a multilevel analysis is performed under Bayesian statistical inference where prior information is incorporated into the modeling process. During the analysis, independent variables are entered sequentially in the order of theoretical importance to create a hierarchy of models. By evaluating each model using Bayesian fit indices, a best-fit and most parsimonious model is selected where Bayesian statistical inference is performed for the purpose of result interpretation and discussion. The primary dataset for Bayesian modeling is derived from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) in 2012 with a secondary PISA dataset from 2003 analyzed under the traditional ordinary least squares method to provide the information needed to specify informative priors for a subset of the model parameters. The dependent variable is a composite measure of mathematics literacy, calculated from an exploratory factor analysis of all five PISA 2012 mathematics achievement plausible values for which multiple evidences are found supporting data unidimensionality. The independent variables include demographics variables and content-specific variables: mathematics efficacy, teacher-student ratio, proportion of girls in the school, etc. Finally, the entire analysis is performed using the MCMCpack and MCMCglmm packages in R.
Responsibility Attitude and Interpretation in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a common, chronic and long-lasting disorder in which a person has uncontrollable, reoccurring thoughts (obsessions) and behaviors (compulsions) that he or she feels the urge to repeat over and over. Inflated responsibility attitude and interpretation are central beliefs in a cognitive model of OCD. This study aimed to develop a Japanese version of the Responsibility Attitude Scale (RAS-J) and Responsibility Interpretation Questionnaire (RIQ-J). 98 participants (OCD group = 37; anxiety control group = 24; healthy control group = 37) completed the RAS-J, RIQ-J and other measures to assess the validity of the RAS-J and RIQ-J. As a result of analysis, both scales had adequate concurrent validity, demonstrated by significant correlations with other measures of OCD, anxiety, and depression. Group comparison data using ANOVA with Bonferroni method indicated that RAS-J and RIQ-J scores for the OCD group not only differed from the nonclinical group, but also from the clinically anxious comparison group. In conclusion, this study indicated that the developed RAS-J and RIQ-J effectively measure responsibility attitude and responsibility interpretation in the Japanese population.
International Comparison in Component of Design-Potential
It is difficult to explain the factor of design preference only in culture or a geographical environment. It is necessary to turn one's eyes also to the factor in an individual. The purpose of this research is to clarify design potential which is inherent in consumers. Design potential is the consciousness and interpretation to an individual design. That is, it catches quantitatively the preparatory state which faces design. For example, a mobile phone differs in designs, such as a color and a form, by the country or the area. It is considered because a regional consumer taste exists. The root is design potential. This consists of design participation, design knowledge, and design sensitivity. Having focused this time is by design sensitivity, and international comparison of the Netherlands, Bangladesh, China, and Japan was performed. As a result, very interesting finding has been derived. For example, although Bangladesh caught the similarity of goods by the color, other three nations were caught in the form. Moreover, although the Netherlands, Bangladesh, and China liked symmetry, only Japan liked asymmetry. This shows that history and a cultural background have had big influence to the design.
Assessment of the Psychoemotional State and Quality of Life at Women Teachers of the Senior Age Group
this article introduces results of a research which purpose is evaluation the quality of life, the psychophysiological status, expressiveness of uneasiness at women teachers of the senior age group. At a research of quality of life of teachers the lowest values have been received from the indicators of the general state of health, vital activity, role emotional functioning and mental health. Every second woman-teacher noted high personal uneasiness; every third woman-teacher noted moderate situational uneasiness, confirming the existence of a professional stress. Revealed the interrelation between alarming conditions and a decrease in a mental component of health. Moreover, there was revealed exhaustion signs at low activity values that indicate a high tension of labor process.