The Amount of Information Processing and Balance Performance in Children: The Dual-Task Paradigm
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of reaction time (RT) or balance performance as the number of stimulus-response choices increases, the amount of information processing of 0-bit and 1-bit conditions based on Hick’s law, using the dual-task design. Eighteen children (age: 9.38 ± 0.27 years old) were recruited as the participants for this study, and asked to assess RT and balance performance separately and simultaneously as following five conditions: simple RT (0-bit decision), choice RT (1-bit decision), single balance control, balance control with simple RT, and balance control with choice RT. Biodex 950-300 balance system and You-Shang response timer were used to record and analyze the postural stability and information processing speed (RT) respectively for the participants. Repeated measures one-way ANOVA with HSD post-hoc test and 2 (balance) × 2 (amount of information processing) repeated measures two-way ANOVA were used to test the parameters of balance performance and RT (α = .05). The results showed the overall stability index in the 1-bit decision was lower than in 0-bit decision, and the mean deflection in the 1-bit decision was lower than in single balance performance. Simple RTs were faster than choice RTs both in single task condition and dual task condition. It indicated that the chronometric approach of RT could use to infer the attention requirement of the secondary task. However, this study did not find that the balance performance is interfered for children by the increasing of the amount of information processing.
Soccer, a Major Social Changing Factor: Kosovo Case
The purpose of our study was to assess the impact of soccer in the overall wealth fare (education, health, and economic prosperity) of youth in Kosovo (age: 7-18). The research conducted measured a number of parameters (training methodologies, conditions, community leadership impact) in a sample consisting of 6 different football clubs’ academies across the country. Fifty (50) male and female football youngsters volunteered in this study. To generate more reliable results, the analysis was conducted with the help of a set of effective project management tools and techniques (Gantt chart, Logic Network, PERT chart, Work Breakdown Structure, and Budgeting Analysis). The interviewees were interviewed under a specific lens of categories (impact in education, health, and economic prosperity). A set of questions were asked i.e. what has football provided to you and the community you live in?; Did football increase your confidence and shaped your life for better?; What was the main reason you started training in football? The results generated explain how a single sport, namely that of football in Kosovo can make a huge social change, improving key social factors in a society. There was a considerable difference between the youth clubs as far as training conditions are concerned. The study found out that despite financial constraints, two out of six clubs managed to produce twice as more talented players that were introduced to professional primary league teams in Kosovo and Albania, including other soccer teams in the region, Europe, and Asia. The study indicates that better sports policy must be formulated and associated with important financial investments in soccer for it to be considered fruitful and beneficial for players of 18 plus years of age, namely professionals.
The Effects of Circuit Training Program on Muscle Strength, Agility, Anaerobic Performance and Cardiovascular Endurance
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of circuit training on muscle strength, agility, anaerobic performance and cardiovascular endurance. Methods: Twenty-four freshmen (18.87+0.68 yr.) male students of Faculty of Sport Science Burapha University. Following baseline testing for height and weight, muscle strength (hand grip dynamometer and leg strength dynamometer), agility (agility T-Test), anaerobic performance (running based anaerobic sprint test) and cardiovascular endurance (20-m endurance shuttle run test), subjects were randomly assigned to one of two groups: circuit training (CT; n=12) and control (C; n=12). The circuit training program included one circuit of eight stations of 30/60 seconds of work/rest performed, two cycles in week 1-4 and 60/90 seconds of work/rest performed three cycles in week 5-8, performed three times per week. Data were analyzed by paired t-tests and independent sample t-test. Statistical significance was set to P < 0.05. Result: After 8 weeks training program, muscle strength, agility, anaerobic capacity and cardiovascular endurance increased significantly in CT group (p < 0.05) and significantly different when compared with C groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion: These results suggest that the circuit training program may improve muscle strength, agility, anaerobic capacity and cardiovascular endurance in freshmen students. This program may guideline for selected a form of exercise to improve physical fitness.
Contesting Discourses in Physical Education: A Critical Discourse Analysis of 20 Textbooks Used in Physical Education Teacher Education in Denmark
The purpose of this study was to investigate different discourses about the body, movement and the main progression in and aim of Physical Education (PE) that are immersed within Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) textbooks. The study was based on an examination of Danish PETE course documents listing 296 educational texts prescribed by PETE teachers for PETE programs in Denmark. It presents a more specific analysis of the 20 most used textbooks in Danish PETE. The study found three different discourses termed: (1) Developing the potential for sport, (2) Basis for creative sensing and (3) Being part of a cultural ballast. These discourses represent different ways of conceptualising and appraising PE as a school subject. The results also suggest that PETE textbooks are deeply involved in the (re)construction, struggling and ‘working’ of classical discourses in PE. Furthermore, that PETE textbooks comprise powerful documents that through their recurrent use of high modality are tending to be unequivocal in their suggestions for PE practices. On the basis of these findings, the presentation suggests that PETE teachers may use textbook analysis in the educational program as a tool for enhancing critical reflections upon central ideological dilemmas in PE.
Effect of Whole-Body Vibration Training on Self-Reported Physical Disability in Employees with Chronic Low-Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Introduction: The goal of this randomized and controlled study is to examine whether whole-body vibration (WBV) training is able to reduce self-reported physical disability in office employees with chronic low-back pain. Materials and methods: 41 subjects (68.3% female/mean age 45.5 ± 9.1 years/mean BMI 26.6 ± 5.2) were randomly allocated to an intervention group (INT (n= 21)) or a control group (CON (n=20). The INT participated in WBV training 2.5 times per week for 3 months. The primary outcome was the change in the Roland and Morris disability questionnaire (RMQ) score over the study period. In addition, secondary outcomes included changes in the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Results: The compliance with the intervention in the INT reached a mean of 81.1% ± 31.2% with no long-lasting unwanted side effects. We found significant positive effects of 3 months of WBV training in the INT compared to the CON regarding the RMQ (p=0.027) and the ODI (p=0.002). Conclusions: WBV training seems to be an effective, safe and suitable intervention for the reduction of the self-reported physical disability in seated working employees with chronic low-back pain.
Testing a Motivational Model of Physical Education on Contextual Outcomes and Total Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity of Middle School Students
Given the rising trend in obesity in children and youth, age-related decline in moderate- to- vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) in several Western, African, and Asian countries in addition to limited evidence of behavioral, affective, cognitive outcomes in physical education, it is important to clarify the motivational processes in physical education classes behind total MVPA engagement. The present study examined the full sequence of the Hierarchical Model of Motivation in physical education including motivational climate, basic psychological needs, intrinsic motivation, contextual behavior, affect, cognition, total MVPA, and associated links to body mass index (BMI) and gender differences. A cross-sectional data comprised self-reports and objective assessments of 770 middle school students (Mage = 13.99 ± .81 years, 52% of girls) in North-East Finland. In order to test the associations between motivational climate, psychological needs, intrinsic motivation, cognition, behavior, affect, and total MVPA, a path model was implemented. Indirect effects between motivational climate and cognition, behavior, affect and total MVPA were tested by setting basic needs and intrinsic motivation as mediators into the model. The findings showed that direct and indirect paths for girls and boys associated with different contextual outcomes and girls’ indirect paths were not related with total MVPA. Precisely, task-involving climate-mediated by physical competence and intrinsic motivation related to enjoyment, importance, and graded assessments within girls, whereas task-involving climate associated with enjoyment and importance via competence and autonomy, and total MVPA via autonomy, intrinsic motivation, and importance within boys. Physical education assessments appeared to be essential in motivating students to participate in greater total MVPA. BMI was negatively linked with competence and relatedness only among girls. Although, the current and previous empirical findings supported task-involving teaching methods in physical education, in some cases, ego-involving climate should not be totally avoided. This may indicate that girls and boys perceive physical education classes in a different way. Therefore, both task- and ego-involving teaching practices can be useful ways of driving behavior in physical education classes.
The Effects of Three Months of High-Intensity Interval Training on Plasma Adiponectin on Overweight College Men
History and objective: Adiponectin is a cytokine secreted by the adipose tissue that functions as an anti-inflammatory, anti-athrogenic and anti-diabetic substance. Its density is inversely correlated with body mass index. The purpose of this research was to examine the effect of 12 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with of the level of serum adiponectin and some selected adiposity markers in overweight and fat college students. Materials and methods: This was a clinical research in which 24 students with BMI between 25 to 30 kg/ m2. The sample was purposefully selected and then randomly assigned into two groups of experimental (age =22.7 ±1.5 yr.; weight = 85.8±3.18 kg and height =178.7±3.29 cm) and control (age =23.1 ±1.1 yr.; weight=79.1±2.4 kg and height =181 .3±4.6 cm), respectively. The experimental group participated in an aerobic exercise program for 12 weeks, 3 sessions per weeks at a high intensity between 85 to 95 percent of maximum heart rate (considering the overload principle). Prior and after the termination of exercise protocol, the level of serum adiponectin, BMI, waist to hip ratio, and body fat percent were calculated. The data were analyzed by using SPSS: PC 16.0 and statistical procedure such as ANCOVA, was used. Results: The result indicated that 12 weeks of intensive interval training led to the increase of serum adiponectin level and decrease of body weight, body fat percent, body mass index and waist to hip ratio (P< 0.05). Conclusion: Based on the result of this research, it may be concluded that participation in intensive interval training for 12 weeks in a non-invasive treatment to increase the adiponectin level while decreasing some of the anthropometric indices associated with obesity or being overweight.
Differential Effect of Technique Majors on Isokinetic Strength in Youth Judoka Athletes
The purpose of this study was to assess the muscular strength performance of upper and lower extremity in isokinetic system for the youth judo players, and also to compare the strength difference between major techniques. Sixteen male and 20 female judo players (age: 16.7 ± 1.6 years old, training age: 4.5 ± 0.8 years) were served as the volunteers for this study. There were 21 players major hand techniques and 15 players major foot techniques. The Biodex S4 Pro was used to assess the strength performance of extensor and flexor of concentric action under the load condition of 30 degree/sec, 60 degree/sec, and 120 degree/sec for elbow joints and knee joints. The strength parameters were included the maximal torque, the normalized maximal torque, the average power, and the average maximal torque. A t test for independent groups was used to evaluate whether hand major and foot major differ significantly with an alpha level of .05. The result showed the maximal torque of left knee extensor in foot major players (243.5 ± 36.3 Nm) was higher significantly than hand major (210.7 ± 21.0 Nm) under the load of 30 degree/sec (p < .05). There were no differences in upper extremity strength between the hand and foot techniques major in three loads (ps < .05). It indicated that the judo player is required to develop the upper extremity strength overall to secure the execution of major techniques.
High School Transgender Students in Brazil: The Difficulties of Staying in School and the Psychological Implications in a Hostile School Environment
Our research conducted in 8 different schools in the city of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, we can clearly see that, even in modern times, where the search for equality between men and women is already over 60 years of struggle in this world where you show Much more than two genres and in this world that is proving that sex is not just biological, are confronted with sexist and phallocentric situations in our Schools, and among our students. The sample consisted of 503 students with a mean age between 13 and 21 years. 107 students identified themselves as gay, lesbian, bisexual or transgender. The remainder was identified as heterosexual or none at all. Compared to LGBT students, transgender students faced the school's more hostile climates, while non-transgender female students were less likely to experience anti-LGBT victimization. In addition, transgender students experienced more negative experiences at school compared to students whose gender expression adhered to traditional gender norms.
Transgender students were more likely to feel insecure at school, with 80.0% of transgender students reporting that they felt insecure at school because of their gender identity.
Female students in our research reported lower frequencies of victimization based on sexual orientation and gender identity and were less likely to feel insecure at school. In all indicators of discrimination in school, high school students have outperformed elementary school students and have had fewer resources and supports related to LGBT.
High school students reported higher rates of victimization on sexual orientation and gender expression than elementary school students. For example, about one-third (35.5%) of high school students suffered regular physical Very often) based on their sexual orientation, compared to less than a quarter (21.4%) of primary school students. The whole premise here is to perceive the phallocentrism and sexism hidden in our schools. Opposition between the sexes is not reflexive or articulates a biological fact, but a social construction.
Effects of the Amount of Static Stretching on the Knee Isokinetic Muscle Strength
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the amount of acutely static stretching on muscular strength and power. There were 15 males, and 7 females recruited voluntarily as the participants in the study. The mean age, body height, and weight of participants were 23.4 ± 2.8 years old, 171.0 ± 7.2 cm, and 65.7 ± 8.7 kg, respectively. Participants were repeated to stretch hamstring muscles 2 or 6 30-s bouts randomly on a separate day spaced 5-7 days apart in a passive, static, sit-and-reach stretching exercise. Before and after acutely static stretching, the Biodex System 4 Pro was used to acquire the peak torque, power, total work, and range of motion for right knee under the loading of 180 deg/s. The 2 (test-retest) × 2 (number of stretches) repeated measures two-way analysis of variance were used to compare the parameters of muscular strength/power (α = .05). The results showed that the peak torque, power, and total work increased significantly after acutely passive static stretching (ps < .05) in flexor and extensor of knee. But there were no significant differences found between the 2 and 6 30-s bouts hamstring muscles stretching (ps > .05). It indicated that the performance of muscular strength and power in knee flexion and extension do not inhibit following the increase of amount of stretching.
The Risk Assessments of Water Quality in Selected White Water River in Malaysia
The research on water quality based on 'Water Quality Index' (WQI) has been on the run along Kampar River in Perak State of Malaysia. This study was conducted to achieve several key objective that determe the value of the parameters that were studied based on Water Quality Index (WQI). The parameters include Dissolved Oxygen (DO), pH, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Suspended Solids. In this study, three sampling stations were selected. Through observations from the researchers, several pollutions were found occurring along the research area such as the disposal of waste water directly without treatment from villagers, widespread dumping of solid waste and the development of the surrounding areas that contributed to the pollution of Sungai Kampar in Perak, Malaysia. Sungai Kampar is commonly used for water recreational activities as well as for bathing purposes. Results showed that Sungai Kampar is classified under category III. According to Interim National Water Quality Standard for Malaysia (INWQS), rivers in the third grade are clean but not suitable for river recreational activities. Therefore, there is a requirement to investigate and analysis the water quality of all white water rivers in Malaysia focusing on the area of water activities. The combination of technology and risk management based on risk assessments can help the recreational industry to survive in future.
The Impact of Physical Activity for Recovering Cancer Patients
Rationale: There is a growing body of evidence that supports the use of physical activity during and after cancer treatment. However, activity levels for patients remain low. As more cancer patients are treated successfully, and treatment costs continue to escalate, physical activity may be a promising adjunct to a person-centred healthcare approach to recovery.
Aim: The aim was to further understand how physical activity may enhance the recovery process for a group of mixed-site cancer patients.
Objectives: The research investigated longitudinal changes in physical activity and perceived the quality of life between two and six month’s post-exercise interventions. It also investigated support systems that enabled patients to sustain these perceived changes.
Method: The respondent cohort comprised 14 mixed-site cancer patients aged 43-70 (11 women, 3 men), who participated in a two-phase physical activity intervention that took place at a university in the South West of England. Phase 1 consisted of an eight-week structured physical activity programme; Phase 2 consisted of four months of non-supervised physical activity. Semi-structured interviews took place three times over six months with each participant. Grounded theory informed the data collection and analysis which, in turn, facilitated theoretical development.
Findings: Our findings propose three theories on the impact of physical activity for recovering cancer patients: 1) Knowledge gained through a structured exercise programme can enable recovering cancer patients to independently sustain physical activity to four-month follow-up. 2) Sustaining physical activity for six months promotes positive changes in the quality of life indicators of chronic fatigue, self-efficacy, the ability to self-manage and energy levels. 3) Peer support from patients facilitates adherence to a structured exercise programme and support from a spouse, or life partner facilitates independently sustained physical activity to four-month follow-up.
Conclusions: This study demonstrates that qualitative research can provide an evidence base that could be used to support future care plans for cancer patients. Findings also demonstrate that a physical activity intervention can be effective at helping cancer patients recover from the side effects of their treatment, and recommends that physical activity should become an adjunct therapy alongside traditional cancer treatments.
Identification of the Orthotropic Parameters of Cortical Bone under Nanoindentation
A good understanding of the mechanical properties of the bone implies a better understanding of its various diseases, such as osteoporosis. Berkovich nanoindentation tests were performed on the human cortical bone to extract its orthotropic parameters. The nanoindentation experiments were then simulated by the finite element method. Different configurations of interactions between the tip indenter and the bone were simulated. The orthotropic parameters of the material were identified by the inverse method for each configuration. The friction effect on the bone mechanical properties was then discussed. It was found that the inverse method using the finite element method is a very efficient method to predict the mechanical behavior of the bone.
Quality of Life Measurements: Evaluation of Intervention Program of Persons with Addiction
Quality of life measurements (QLF) help to evaluate interventions programs in different groups of persons with special needs. Our presentation deals with QLF of persons with addiction in relation to the physical activity (PA), type of addiction, age, gender and other variables. The aim of presentation is to summarize the basic findings and offer thoughts for questions arose.
Methods: SQUALA (Subjective Quality of Life Analysis); SEIQoL (Schedule for the Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life); questionnaire of own construction. The results are evaluated by MannWhitney U test and KruskallWallis ANOVA test (p ≤ 0,05). Sample of 64 participants – clients of aftercare center, aged 18 plus. Findings: Application of the methods SQUALA and SEIQoL in the chosen population seems appropriate, the obtaining information regarding the QLF correlate to intervention program topics, the need of an activelifestyle and health related topics in persons with addiction is visible.
Conclusions or Implications: The subjective evaluation of quality of life of Aftercare clients is an important part of evaluation process, especially used to evaluate satisfaction with offered services and programs. Techniques SQUALA and SEIQoL gave us the desired outcomes.
Relationship between Academic Performance with Physical, Psychosocial, Lifestyle and Sociodemographic Factors in Female Undergraduate Students
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between physical, psychosocial, lifestyle and sociodemographic factors with academic performance in female undergraduate students. One hundred undergraduate female students from the Faculty of Science at the University of Quebec at Montreal participated in this study (mean age = 24.4 ± 4.6 years old). All participants provided their university transcript and had to complete at least 45 course credits from their bachelor degree. Body composition (DXA), handgrip strength, estimated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) (Bruce Protocol) and blood pressure were measured. Participants also completed a questionnaire on their psychosocial, academic motivation, lifestyle and sociodemographic profile. Participants were then divided into two equal groups (n = 50) based on their grade point average (GPA; median GPA = 3.29/4.30). Significantly higher handgrip strength, VO2 max, social functioning, intrinsic motivation to know values (p < 0.05) and significantly lower extrinsic identified regulation values (p < 0.05) were observed in the Higher-GPA group compared to the Lower-GPA group. In addition, a lower tendency for fat mass was noted in the Higher-GPA group. Moreover, eating breakfast every morning and being an atheist was positively associated with academic performance (p < 0.05). Finally, a stepwise linear regression analysis showed that eating a daily breakfast and VO2 max levels explained 15.0 % of the variation in the GPA in our cohort. In conclusion, results of the present study indicate that eating a daily breakfast and VO2 max levels appear to be associated with academic performance in female undergraduate students.
Beneficial Effects of Physical Activity in Treatment with Mental Health
Introduction: This review addresses the relationship between physical education and mental health and its main objective is to discuss the meanings that circulate in Psychiatric Hospitalization Units and Psychosocial Care Centers (CAPS) about the presence of physical education teachers and the practices developed by Them within these services. Material and methods: It is based on the theoretical contribution of the Psychiatric Reform and is methodologically inspired by the Bibliographic Review. Objectives: The objective of this review was to identify the main scientific evidence on the effects of physical activity on the main psychological aspects associated with mental health during the hospitalization process. Results: It was observed that physical activity has beneficial effects in the psychological, social and cognitive aspects, being thus a fundamental aspect of the lifestyle in promoting a healthy and successful treatment. In studies evaluating the effects of physical activity on mental health, the most frequently evaluated outcomes include anxiety, depression, and health-related quality of life (eg, self-esteem and self-efficacy). Evidence from epistemological studies indicates that the level of physical activity is positively associated with good mental health, when mental health is defined as good mood, general well-being and decreased symptoms. Conclusion: It is necessary to intervene and a greater interest of the professionals of physical education in the treatment with the people with mental disorders so that the negative symptoms are modified, through the aid of the physical activity, by better quality of life, physical condition, nutritional state and A healthy emotional appearance.
Gender Differences in Academic Performance of High School Students: The Relationship with Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Muscle Endurance and Test Anxiety
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle endurance and test anxiety levels with academic performance in both genders of high school students. Five hundred and forty-five grade 9 students (mean age: 14.1 ± 0.4 years old) from a single French-Canadian high school located in Montreal, Canada, participated in this study. Final grades in language (French), mathematics and science as well as the overall mean average of all courses were used to assess academic performance. Cardiorespiratory fitness levels were estimated using the 20-meter shuttle run test, and muscle endurance was measured using push-up and curl-up tests. Participants also completed a questionnaire for the assessment of test anxiety. Subjects were then divided into two groups based on their gender (Male: n = 253; Female: n = 292). Results show that female students had significantly higher grades in language and science as well as a higher overall mean average than male students (p < 0.001). Moreover, we observed that female students had significant greater correlation coefficient values than male students for the following correlations: cardiorespiratory fitness levels with overall mean average, mathematics, and science; the number of curl-ups with the overall mean average; the number of push-ups with overall mean average, mathematics, and science (p < 0.05). Finally, stepwise linear regression analysis showed multiple differences between male and female students regarding independent predictors of academic performance (p < 0.01). In conclusion, results of the present study indicate that the academic performances of male and female students are different in high school and that these distinct academic performances appear to be explained by different variables.
Effects Of Kinesio Taping On Postural Stability In Young Soccer Players
Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of Kinesio taping on postural stability and in young soccer players.
Subjects and Methods: 62 volunteered soccer players from Cayyolu Sports Club were included in our study. Permissions were also taken from the club directors about the inclusion of their players to our study. Soccer players between the age of 12 and 16 were included in our study. Players that had previous injury on lower extremities were excluded from the study. Players were randomly divided into two groups: Kinesio taping (KT) (n=31), and control group (n = 31). KT application including gastrocnemius and quadriceps femoris muscle facilitation techniques were applied to the first group. A rest time for 45 minutes was given in order to see the best effectiveness of the tape. The second group was set as the control group and no application was made. All participants were assessed before the application and 45 minutes later. In order to provide the double-blind design of the study, an experienced physiotherapist has done the assessments and another experienced physiotherapist has done the taping. The patients were randomly assigned to one of the two groups using an online random allocation software program. Postural stability was assessed by using Tetrax Interactive Balance System. Thermographic assessment was done by using FLIR E5 (FLIR Systems AB, Sweden) thermal camera in order to see which muscles have the most thermal activity while maintaining postural stability.
Results: Statistically significant differences were found in all assessment parameters in both Kinesio Taping and control groups (all p< 0.05) except thermal imaging of dominant gastrocnemius muscle results (p=0.668) (Table 1). In comparison of the two groups, statistically significant differences were found in all parameters (all p< 0.05).
Conclusion: In this study, we investigated the effects of Kinesio taping on postural stability in young soccer players and found that KT application on Quadriceps and Gastrocnemius muscles may have decreased the risk of falling more than the control group. According to thermal imaging assessments, both Quadriceps and Gastrocnemius muscles may be active in maintaining postural stability but in KT group, the temperature of these muscles are higher which leads us to think that they are more activated.
Description of the Process Which Determine the Criterion Validity of Semi-Structured Interview PARA-SCI.CZ
The people with spinal cord injury are one of the least sport active members of our society. Their hypoactivity is determined by primary injury, i.e., the loss of motor function, the injured part of the body is connected with health complications and social handicap. Study performs one part of the standardization process of semi-structured interview PARA-SCI.CZ (Czech version of the Physical Activity Recall Assessment for People with Spinal Cord Injury), which measures the type, frequency, duration, and intensity of physical activity of people with spinal cord injury. The study focused on persons with paraplegia who use a wheelchair as their primary mode of mobility. The aim of this study was to perform a process to determine the criterion validity of PARA-SCI.CZ. The actual physical activity of wheelchair users was monitored during three days by using accelerometers Actigraph GT3X fixed on the non-dominant wrist, and semi-structured interview PARA-SCI.CZ. During the PARA-SCI.CZ interview, participants were asked to recall activities they had done over the past 3 days, starting with the previous day. PARA-SCI.CZ captured frequency, duration, and intensity (low, moderate, and heavy) of two categories of physical activity (leisure time physical activity and activities of a usual day). Accelerometer Actigraph GT3X captured duration and intensity (low and moderate + heavy) of physical activity during three days and nights. The study presented three potential recalculations of measured data. Standardization process of PARA-SCI.CZ is essential to critically approach issues of health and active lifestyle of persons with spinal cord injury in the Czech Republic. Standardized PARA-SCI.CZ can be used in practice by physiotherapists and sports pedagogues from the field of adapted physical activities.
The Triad Experience: Benefits and Drawbacks of the Paired Placement of Student Teachers in Physical Education
Traditional models of student teaching practices typically involve the placement of a student teacher with an experienced mentor teacher. However, due to the ever-decreasing number of quality placements, an alternative triad approach is the paired placement of student teachers with one mentor teacher in a community of practice. This study examined the paired-placement of student teachers in physical education to determine the benefits and drawbacks after a 14-week student teaching experience. PETE students (N = 22) at a university in the United States were assigned to work in a triad with a student teaching partner and a mentor teacher, making up eleven triads for the semester. The one exception was a pair that worked for seven weeks at an elementary school and then for seven weeks at a junior high school, thus having two mentor teachers and participating in two triads. A total of 12 mentor teachers participated in the study. All student teachers and mentor teachers volunteered and agreed to participate. The student teaching experience was structured so that students engaged in: (a) individual teaching (one teaching the lesson with the other observing), (b) co-planning, and (c) peer coaching. All students and mentor teachers were interviewed at the conclusion of the experience. Using interview data, field notes, and email response data, the qualitative data was analyzed using the constant comparative method. The benefits of the paired placement experience emerged into three categories (a) quality feedback, (b) support, and (c) collaboration. The drawbacks emerged into four categories (a) unrealistic experience, (b) laziness in preparation, (c) lack of quality feedback, and (d) personality mismatch. Recommendations include: providing in-service training prior to student teaching to optimize the triad experience, ongoing seminars throughout the experience specifically designed for triads, and a hybrid model of paired placement for the first half of student teaching followed by solo student teaching for the second half of the experience.
Suitability of the Sport Motivation Scale–II for Use in Jr. High Physical Education: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis
Background: For more than a decade, the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS) has been used to measure contextual motivation across a variety of sporting and physical education (PE) settings but not without criticism as to its tenability. Consequently, a new version of the sport motivation scale (SMS-II) was created to address certain weakness of the original SMS. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess the suitability of the SMS-II in the secondary PE setting. Methods: Three hundred and twenty (204 females, and 116 males; grades 7-9) completed the 18-item, six-subscale SMS-II at the end of a required PE class. Factor means, standard deviations, and correlations were calculated and further examined via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Model parameters were estimated maximum likelihood function. Results: Results indicate that participants held generally positive perceptions toward PE as a context (more so for males than females). Reliability analysis yielded adequate alphas (rα = 0.71 to 0.87, Mα = 0.78) with the exception of the AM subscale (αAM = .64). Correlation analysis indicated some support for the SIMPLEX pattern, but distal ends of the motivation continuum displayed no relationship. CFA yielded robust fit indices to the proposed structure of the SMS-II for PE. A small but significant variance across genders was noted and discussed. Conclusions: In all, the SMS-II suitably accesses PE context-specific motivational indices within Jr. High PE.
Perceived Physical Exercise Benefits among Staff of Tertiary Institutions in Adamawa State
Perceived physical exercise benefits among staff of tertiary institutions in Adamawa State was investigated as a basis for formulating proper exercise intervention strategies. The study utilized descriptive survey design. The purpose of the study was to determine perceived exercise benefits among staff of tertiary institutions in Adamawa state, Nigeria. The instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire adapted from Exercise Benefit/Barrier Scale (EBBS) developed by Sechrist, Walker and Pender (1985) which was validated by five experts. Three hundred and thirty (330) copies of the questionnaire were distributed among study participants in six institutions of higher learning in Adamawa state. The scale comprised two components; Benefits and Barriers dimensions. To achieve this purpose, three research questions were posed. The instrument had a four response forced-choice Likert-type format with responses ranging from 4 = strongly agree (SA), 3 = Agree (A), 2 = Disagree (D) and 1 = Strongly Disagree (SD). The findings of the study revealed that both male and female staff in institutions of higher learning in Adamawa state perceived exercise as highly beneficial. However, male staff had higher perceived benefits score than their female counterparts. (Male: x̄ = 95.02. SD = 3.08) > female: x̄ = 94.04, SD = 4.35. There was also no significant difference in perceived exercise barriers between staff and students of tertiary institutions in Adamawa state. Based on the finding of the study, it was concluded that staff of tertiary institutions perceived exercise as highly beneficial. It was recommended that since staff of institutions of higher learning in Adamawa State irrespective of gender and religious affiliations have basic knowledge of perceived benefits of exercise, there is the need to explore programmes that will enable staff across the sub-groups to overcome barriers that could discourage physical exercise participation.
Application of Multidimensional Model of Evaluating Organisational Performance in Moroccan Sport Clubs
Introduction: Organizational performance is recognized by some theorists as one-dimensional concept, and by others as multidimensional. This concept, which is already difficult to apply in traditional companies, is even harder to identify, to measure and to manage when voluntary organizations are concerned, essentially because of the complexity of that form of organizations such as sport clubs who are characterized by the multiple goals and multiple constituencies. Indeed, the new culture of professionalization and modernization around organizational performance emerges new pressures from the state, sponsors, members and other stakeholders which have required these sport organizations to become more performance oriented, or to build their capacity in order to better manage their organizational performance. The evaluation of performance can be made by evaluating the input (e.g. available resources), throughput (e.g. processing of the input) and output (e.g. goals achieved) of the organization. In non-profit organizations (NPOs), questions of performance have become increasingly important in the world of practice. To our knowledge, most of studies used the same methods to evaluate the performance in NPSOs, but no recent study has proposed a club-specific model. Based on a review of the studies that specifically addressed the organizational performance (and effectiveness) of NPSOs at operational level, the present paper aims to provide a multidimensional framework in order to understand, analyse and measure organizational performance of sport clubs. This paper combines all dimensions founded in literature and chooses the most suited of them to our model that we will develop in Moroccan sport clubs case. Method: We propose to implicate our unified model of evaluating organizational performance that takes into account all the limitations found in the literature. On a sample of Moroccan sport clubs ‘Football, Basketball, Handball and Volleyball’, for this purpose we use a qualitative study. The sample of our study comprises data from sport clubs (football, basketball, handball, volleyball) participating on the first division of the professional football league over the period from 2011 to 2016. Each football club had to meet some specific criteria in order to be included in the sample: 1. Each club must have full financial data published in their annual financial statements, audited by an independent chartered accountant. 2. Each club must have sufficient data. Regarding their sport and financial performance. 3. Each club must have participated at least once in the 1st division of the professional football league. Result: The study showed that the dimensions that constitute the model exist in the field with some small modifications. The correlations between the different dimensions are positive. Discussion: The aim of this study is to test the unified model emerged from earlier and narrower approaches for Moroccan case. Using the input-throughput-output model for the sketch of efficiency, it was possible to identify and define five dimensions of organizational effectiveness applied to this field of study.
Effects of Acacia Honey Drink Ingestion during Rehydration after Exercise Compared to Sports Drink on Physiological Parameters and Subsequent Running Performance in the Heat
Introduction: Prolonged exercise in a hot and humid environment can result in glycogen depletion and associated with loss of body fluid. Carbohydrate contained in sports beverages is beneficial for improving sports performance and preventing dehydration. Carbohydrate contained in honey is believed can be served as an alternative form of carbohydrate for enhancing sports performance. Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of honey drink compared to sports drink as a recovery aid for running performance and physiological parameters in the heat. Method: Ten male recreational athletes (age: 22.2 ± 2.0 years, VO2max: 51.5 ± 3.7 ml.kg-1.min-1) participated in this randomized cross-over study. On each trial, participants were required to run for 1 hour in the glycogen depletion phase (Run-1), followed by a rehydration phase for 2 hours and subsequently a 20 minutes time trial performance (Run-2). During Run-1, subjects were required to run on the treadmill in the heat (31°C) with 70% relative humidity at 70 % of their VO2max. During rehydration phase, participants drank either honey drink or sports drink, or plain water with amount equivalent to 150% of body weight loss in dispersed interval (60 %, 50 % and 40 %) at 0 min, 30 min and 60 min respectively. Subsequently, time trial was performed by the participants in 20 minutes and the longest distance covered was recorded. Physiological parameters were analysed using two-way ANOVA with repeated measure and time trial performance was analysed using one-way ANOVA. Results: Result showed that Acacia honey elicited a better time trial performance with significantly longer distance compared to water trial (P< 0.05). However, there was no significant difference between Acacia honey and sport drink trials (P > 0.05). Acacia honey and sports drink trials elicited 249 m (8.24 %) and 211 m (6.79 %) longer in distance compared to the water trial respectively. For physiological parameters, plasma glucose, plasma insulin and plasma free fatty acids in Acacia honey and sports drink trials were significantly higher compared to the water trial respectively during rehydration phase and time trial running performance phase. There were no significant differences in body weight changes, oxygen uptake, hematocrit, plasma volume changes and plasma cortisol in all the trials. Conclusion: Acacia honey elicited greatest beneficial effects on sports performance among the drinks, thus it has potential to be used for rehydration in athletes who train and compete in hot environment.
Physical Education and Bodily Practices as an Alternative for Body Design and Acceptance in LGBTI Students
In the last decades, there have been changes in the organization of society. It is not by chance that in our schools we have witnessed a growing interest in actions to address violence, prejudice, and discrimination against gays, lesbians, bisexuals, transvestites, and transsexuals. Considering that gender is a category that is present in the broad scope of relations that physical education covers, it seems that the theme has not aroused due attention. The body is not just a body. It is also their environment. Society forms not only personality and behavior, but also, how the body appears. In order to problematize gender in the field of physical education, it makes sense to put the body in focus because it is of bodily practices, that body's movement, which is spoken. The sports are part of the cultural manifestations of the most different social groups. Through workshops and interviews, we will investigate the role of Sports in the process of conception and acceptance of the body in LGBTTI students. From this work we intend to work towards a greater inclusion of these students in physical education classes, as well as a better understanding of their body and their sexuality. We hope that our work will enable greater acceptance and better body design of LGBTTI students.
Work, Pension and Physical Activity: Findings from an Interview Study
Objective: To examine the interrelation of physical activity with work-related variables in older individuals to determine pathways to promote the maintenance of an aging workforce’s ability and motivation to work.
Design/methodology/approach: An interview-study was conducted with N=5,002 community-dwelling people aged 55 to 70 years (for T1). N=2,501 (50%) were interviewed 3 years later again (T2). Correlation-, Chi²-, MANOVA and moderated mediation analyses were performed.
Findings: The less people worked, the more physically active they were. Working was only related to calendar age but not to subjective age. Men and women only differed in working hours and an interaction of gender and pension regarding working hours and subjective health revealed: Controlled for calendar age, the amount of worked hours while receiving pension was about the same in men and women, however, men worked significantly more hours if they did not receive pension. The relationship between physical activity and worked hours was mediated by life investment and subjective health in women, and by subjective health in men.
Practical implications: Developing good health through performing physical activity should be done as part of work-place health promotion or by work organization and HR management to enable, and motivate older individuals to work even when receiving pension. Thus, such initiates should not only offered for younger and middle aged employees. Physical activity and company-facilitated sports activities can be an integral part in this.
Originality/value: This is the first study testing these mechanisms in this age group, indicating the importance of not only understanding physical activity as a time challenge to work but also the potential to protect workability and to work aside from receiving pension.
Gender Differences in Walking Capacity and Cardiovascular Regulation in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease
Women with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) present lower walking capacity in comparison with men. However, whether cardiovascular regulation is also different between genders is unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare walking capacity and cardiovascular regulation between men and women with PAD. A total of 23 women (66±7 yrs) and 31 men (64±9 yrs) were recruited. Patients performed a 6-minute test and the onset claudication distance and total walking distance were measured. Additionally, cardiovascular regulation was assessed by arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity and augmentation index) and heart rate variability (frequency domain). Independent T test or Mann-Whitney U test were performed. In comparison with men, women present lower onset claudication distance (108±66m vs. 143±50m; P=0.032) and total walking distance (286±83m vs. 361±91 m, P=0.007). Regarding cardiovascular regulation, there were no differences in heart rate variability SDNN (72±160ms vs. 32±22ms, P=0.587); RMSSD (75±209 vs. 25±22ms, P=0.726); pNN50 (11±17ms vs. 8±14ms, P=0.836) in women and men, respectively. Moreover, there were no difference in augmentation index (39±10% vs. 34±11%, P=0.103); pulse pressure (59±17mmHg vs. 56±19mmHg, P=0.593) and pulse wave velocity (8.6±2.6m\s vs. 9.0±2.7m/s, P=0.580). In conclusion, women have impaired walking capacity compared to men. However, sex differences were not observed on cardiovascular regulation in patients with PAD.
The Effect of Acute Muscular Exercise and Training Status on Haematological Indices in Adult Males
Introduction: Long term physical training affect the performance of athletes especially the females. Soccer which is a team sport, played in an outdoor field, require adequate oxygen transport system for the maximal aerobic power during exercise in order to complete 90 minutes of competitive play. Suboptimal haematological status has often been recorded in athletes with intensive physical activity. It may be due to the iron depletion caused by hemolysis or haemodilution results from plasma volume expansion. There is lack of data regarding the dynamics of red blood cell variables, in male football players. We hypothesized that, a long competitive season involving frequent matches and intense training could influence red blood cell variables, as a consequence of applying repeated physical loads when compared with sedentary. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried on 40 adult males (20 athletes and 20 non athletes) between 18-25 years of age. The 20 apparently healthy male non athletes were taken as sedentary and 20 male footballers comprise the study group. The university institutional review board (ABUTH/HREC/TRG/36) gave approval for all procedures in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Red blood cell (RBC) concentration, packed cell volume (PCV), and plasma volume were measured in fasting state and immediately after exercise. Statistical analysis was done by using SPSS/ win.20.0 for comparison within and between the groups, using student’s paired and unpaired “t” test respectively. Results: The finding from our study shows that, immediately after termination of exercise, the mean RBC counts and PCV significantly (p< 0.005) decreased with significant increased (p< 0.005) in plasma volume when compared with pre-exercised values in both group. In addition the post exercise RBC was significantly higher in untrained (261.10±8.5) when compared with trained (255.20±4.5). However, there was no significant differences in the post exercise hematocrit and plasma volume parameters between the sedentary and the footballers. Moreover, beside changes in pre-exercise values among the sedentary and the football players, the resting red blood cell counts and Plasma volume (PV %) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the sedentary group (306.30±10.05 x 104 /mm3; 58.40±0.54%) when compared with football players (293.70±4.65 x 104 /mm3; 55.60±1.18%). On the other hand, the sedentary group exhibited significant (p < 0.05) decrease in PCV (41.60±0.54%) when compared with the football players (44.40±1.18%). Conclusions: It is therefore proposed that the acute football exercise induced reduction in RBC and PCV is entirely due to plasma volume expansion, and not of red blood cell hemolysis. In addition, the training status also influenced haematological indices of male football players differently from the sedentary at rest due to adaptive response. This is novel.
Effects of Handgrip Isometric Training in Blood Pressure of Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease
Patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) have a high prevalence of hypertension, which contributes to a high risk of acute cardiovascular events and cardiovascular mortality. Strategies to reduce cardiovascular risk of these patients are needed. Meta-analysis studies have shown that isometric handgrip training promotes reductions in clinical blood pressure in normotensive, pre-hypertensive and hypertensive individuals. However, the effect of this exercise training on other cardiovascular function indicators in PAD patients remains unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of isometric handgrip training on blood pressure in patients with PAD. In this clinical trial, 28 patients were randomly allocated into two groups: isometric handgrip training (HG) and control (CG). The HG conducted the unilateral handgrip training three days per week (four sets of two minutes, with 30% of maximum voluntary contraction with an interval of four minutes between sets). CG was encouraged to increase their physical activity levels. At baseline and after eight weeks blood pressure and heart rate were obtained. ANOVA two-way for repeated measures with the group (GH and GC) and time (pre- and post-intervention) as factors was performed. After 8 weeks of training there were no significant changes in systolic blood pressure (HG pre 141 ± 24.0 mmHg vs. HG post 142 ± 22.0 mmHg; CG pre 140 ± 22.1 mmHg vs. CG post 146 ± 16.2 mmHg; P=0.18), diastolic blood pressure (HG pre 74 ± 10.4 mmHg vs. HG post 74 ± 11.9 mmHg; CG pre 72 ± 6.9 mmHg vs. CG post 74 ± 8.0 mmHg; P=0.22) and heart rate (HG pre 61 ± 10.5 bpm vs. HG post 62 ± 8.0 bpm; CG pre 64 ± 11.8 bpm vs. CG post 65 ± 13.6 bpm; P=0.81). In conclusion, our preliminary data indicate that isometric handgrip training did not modify blood pressure and heart rate in patients with PAD.
The Effect of Aerobics Course on Fitness Ability of the University Students
The purpose of the study was to examine abnormal BMI students of Chien Hsin University of Science and Technology, implement teaching aerobics course through elementary and advanced curriculum design, dietary education and three-day dietary record, analyze participant fitness improvement, an 10-week course as well as pre-test and post-test were carried out to evaluate the effect of the aerobics course on the fitness ability. The actual participate elementary and advanced courses each of 40 people, with low participation deduction course unfinished fitness testing, access to elementary curriculum valid samples 35 (87.5%) people, advanced courses valid samples 38(95%) people, 16 students participated in two consecutive courses. The fitness activities included sit-bending, one-minute sit-ups, standing long jump, and three minutes to board the stage. Analysis and comparison to the average three-day dietary record difference, an independent samples t-test was conducted to analyze the differences in the four activities between pre-test and post-test. The results showed that the elementary course had significant effects on females’ sit-bending and one minute sit-ups, the females also had high fat intake in three-day dietary record. The advanced course had significant effects on males’ sit-bending and on females’ BMI, sit-bending and standing long jump, males and females in three-day dietary record carbohydrate intake slightly low, slightly higher protein and fat intake. In conclusion, aerobics course teaching, dietary education and three-day, dietary record implementation can significantly enhance the physical fitness indicators, and continued to participate in advanced courses better. In the practice of sport should be the future course planning elementary and advanced courses, while introducing dietary education, achieve concrete results in improving physical fitness.