Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 56400

Sport and Health Sciences

Validation of Two Field Base Dynamic Balance Tests in the Activation of Selected Hip and Knee Stabilizer Muscles
The purpose of this study was to validate muscle activation amplitudes of two field base dynamic balance tests that are used as strengthen and motor control exercises too in the activation of selected hip and knee stabilizer muscles. Methods: Eighteen college-age females students (21±2 years; 65.6± 8.7 kg; 169.7±8.1 cm) who participated at least for 30 minutes in physical activity most days of the week volunteered. The wireless BIOPAC (MP150, BIOPAC System. Inc, California, USA) surface electromyography system was used to validate the activation of the Gluteus Medius and the Adductor Magnus of hip stabilizer muscles; and the Hamstrings, Quadriceps, and the Gastrocnemius of the knee stabilizer muscles. Surface electrodes (EL 503, BIOPAC, System. Inc) connected to dual wireless EMG BioNormadix Transmitters were place on selected muscles of participants dominate side. Manual muscle testing was performed to obtain the maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) in which all collected muscle activity data during the three reaching direction: anterior, posteromedial, posterolateral of the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) and the Y-balance Test (YBT) data could be normalized. All participants performed three trials for each reaching direction of the SEBT and the YBT. The domanial leg trial for each participant was selected for analysis which was also the standing leg. Results: the selected hip stabilizer muscles (Gluteus Medius, Adductor Magnus) were both greater than 100%MVIC during the performance of the SEBT and in all three directions. Whereas, selected knee stabilizer muscles had greater activation 0f 100% MVIC and were significantly more activated during the performance of the YBT test in all three reaching directions. The results showed that the posterolateral and the postmedial reaching directions for both dynamic balance tests had greater activation levels and greater than 200%MVIC for all tested muscles expect of the hamstrings. Conclusion: the results of this study showed that the SEBT and the YBT had validated high levels of muscular activity for the hip and the knee stabilizer muscles; which can be used to represent the improvement, strength, control and the decreasing in the injury levels. Since these selected hip and knee stabilizer muscles, represent 35% of all athletic injuries depending on the type of sport.
Interactivity as a Predictor of Intent to Revisit Sports Apps
Sports apps in a smartphone provide up-to-date information and fast and convenient access to live games. The market of sports apps has emerged as the second fastest growing app category worldwide. Further, many sports fans use their smartphones to know the schedule of sporting events, players’ position and bios, videos and highlights. In recent years, a growing number of scholars and practitioners alike have emphasized the importance of interactivity with sports apps, hypothesizing that interactivity plays a significant role in enticing sports apps users and that it is a key component in measuring the success of sports apps. Interactivity in sports apps focuses primarily on two functions: (1) two-way communication and (2) active user control, neither of which have been applicable through traditional mass media and communication technologies. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine whether the interactivity function on sports apps leads to positive outcomes such as intent to revisit. More specifically, this study investigates how three major functions of interactivity (i.e., two-way communication, active user control, and real-time information) influence the attitude of sports apps users and their intent to revisit the sports apps. The following hypothesis is proposed; interactivity functions will be positively associated with both attitudes toward sports apps and intent to revisit sports apps. The survey questionnaire includes four parts: (1) an interactivity scale, (2) an attitude scale, (3) a behavioral intention scale, and (4) demographic questions. Data are to be collected from ESPN apps users. To examine the relationships among the observed and latent variables and determine the reliability and validity of constructs, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is conducted. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is utilized to test hypothesized relationships among constructs. Additionally, this study compares the proposed interactivity model with a rival model to identify the role of attitude as a mediating factor. The findings of the current sports apps study provide several theoretical and practical contributions and implications by extending the research and literature associated with the important role of interactivity functions in sports apps and sports media consumption behavior. Specifically, this study may improve the theoretical understandings of whether the interactivity functions influence user attitudes and intent to revisit sports apps. Additionally, this study identifies which dimensions of interactivity are most important to sports apps users. From practitioners’ perspectives, this findings of this study provide significant implications. More entrepreneurs and investors in the sport industry need to recognize that high-resolution photos, live streams, and up-to-date stats are in the sports app, right at sports fans fingertips. The result will imply that sport practitioners may need to develop sports mobile apps that offer greater interactivity functions to attract sport fans.
Physical Activity and Cognitive Functioning Relationship in Children
This study investigated the relation between processing information and fitness level of active (fit) and sedentary (unfit) children drawn from rural and urban areas in Botswana. It was hypothesized that fit children would display faster simple reaction time (SRT), choice reaction times (CRT) and movement times (SMT). 60, third grade children (7.0 – 9.0 years) were initially selected and based upon fitness testing, 45 participated in the study (15 each of fit urban, unfit urban, fit rural). All children completed anthropometric measures, skinfold testing and submaximal cycle ergometer testing. The cognitive testing included SRT, CRT, SMT and Choice Movement Time (CMT) and memory sequence length. Results indicated that the rural fit group exhibited faster SMT than the urban fit and unfit groups. For CRT, both fit groups were faster than the unfit group. Collectively, the study shows that the relationship that exists between physical fitness and cognitive function amongst the elderly can tentatively be extended to the pediatric population. Physical fitness could be a factor in the speed at which we process information, including decision making, even in children.
Turning Parameters Affect Time up and Go Test Performance in Pre-Frail Community-Dwelling Elderly
Background: Frailty is associated with decreased physical performances that affect mobility of the elderly. Time up and go test (TUG) was the common method to evaluate mobility in the community. The purpose of this study was to compare the parameters in different stages of Time up and go test (TUG) and physical performance between pre-frail elderly (PFE) and non-frail elderly (NFE). We also investigated the relationship between TUG parameters and physical performance. Methods: Ninety-two community-dwelling older adults were as participants in this study. Based on Canadian Study of Health and Aging Clinical Frailty Scale, 22 older adults were classified as PFE (71.77 ± 6.05 yrs.) and 70 were classified as NFE (71.2 ± 5.02 yrs.). We performed body composition and physical performance, including balance, muscular strength/endurance, mobility, cardiorespiratory endurance, and flexibility. Results: Pre-frail elderly took significantly longer time than NFE in TUG test (p=.004). Pre-frail elderly had lower turning average angular velocity (p = .017), turning peak angular velocity (p = .041) and turning-stand to sit peak angular velocity (p = .037) than NFE. The turning related parameters related to open-eye stand on right foot, 30-second chair stand test, back scratch, and 2-min step tests. Conclusions: Turning average angular velocity, turning peak angular velocity and turning-stand to sit peak angular velocity mainly affected the TUG performance. We suggested that static/dynamic balance, agility, flexibility, and muscle strengthening of lower limbs exercise were important to PFE.
Maximum Power and Bone Variables in Young Adult Men
The regular practice of physical activities characterized by significant mechanical stresses stimulates bone formation and improves bone mineral density (BMD) in the most solicited sites. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between maximum power and bone variables in a group of young adult men. Identification of new determinants of BMD, bone mineral content (BMC) and hip geometric indices in young adult men, would allow screening and early management of future cases of osteopenia and osteoporosis. Fifty-three young adult men (18 – 35yr) voluntarily participated in this study. Weight and height were measured, and body mass index was calculated. Body composition, BMC and BMD were determined for each individual by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA; GE Healthcare, Madison, WI) at whole body (WB), lumbar spine (L1-L4), total hip (TH), and femoral neck (FN). FN cross-sectional area (CSA), strength index (SI), buckling ratio (BR), FN section modulus (Z), cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI) and L1-L4 TBS were also evaluated by DXA. The vertical jump was evaluated using a field test (sargent test). Two main parameters were retained: vertical jump performance (cm) and power (w). The subjects performed three jumps with 2 minutes of recovery between jumps. The highest vertical jump was selected. Maximum power (P max, in watts) was calculated. Maximum power was positively correlated to WB BMD (r = 0.41; p < 0.01), WB BMC (r = 0.65; p < 0.001), L1-L4 BMC (r = 0.54; p < 0.001), FN BMC (r = 0.35; p < 0.01), TH BMC (r = 0.50; p < 0.001), CSMI (r = 0.50; p < 0.001), CSA (r = 0.33; p < 0.05). Vertical jump was positively correlated to WB BMC (r = 0.31; p < 0.05), L1-L4 BMC (r = 0.40; p < 0.01), CSMI (r = 0.29; p < 0.05). The current study suggests that maximum power is a positive determinant of BMD, BMC and hip geometric indices in young adult men. In addition, it shows also that maximum power is a stronger positive determinant of bone variables than vertical jump in this population. Implementing strategies to increase maximum power in young adult men may be useful for preventing osteoporotic fractures later in life.
Antioxidant Effects of Regular Aerobic Exercise in Postmenopausal Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Background: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder associated with increased free radicals and oxidative stress. The evidence indicates that physical inactivity is a modifiable behavioral risk factor for a wide range of chronic disorders such as diabetes mellitus. We investigated the effects of eight-week aerobic exercise on some antioxidant enzyme activities in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: sixteen sedentary postmenopausal women with T2DM were randomly assigned to the control (n=8; CG) and exercise group (n=8; EG). The exercise consisted of progressive aerobic training at a moderate intensity (50-70% of the maximum heart rate), for 25-60 min/day, and 3 days/week for 8 weeks. Age, sex, and body mass index were similar in the two groups. Antioxidant status was evaluated by measuring the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity. Also levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) as an index of lipid peroxidation and glucose in the plasma were measured before and after the intervention. Results: Following the 8 weeks of exercise training, the plasma MDA and glucose levels were significantly reduced in EG compared to CG (P=0.001 and P=0.011 respectively). However, SOD (P=0.017) and CAT (P=0.011) activities were increased in EG compared to CG. Conclusion: The present study suggests regular aerobic exercise appears can exert protective effects against oxidative stress due to its ability to increase antioxidant defense and glucose control in postmenopausal women with T2DM.
Reliability of 2D Motion Analysis System for Sagittal Plane Lower Limb Kinematics during Running
Introduction: Running is one of the most popular sports activity among people. Improper sagittal plane ankle, knee and hip kinematics are considered to be associated with the increase of injury risk in runners. Motion assessing smart-phone applications are increasingly used to measure kinematics both in the field and laboratory setting, as they are cheaper, more portable, accessible, and easier to use relative to 3D motion analysis system. The aims of this study are 1) to compare the results of 3D gait analysis system and CE; 2) to evaluate the test-retest and intra-rater reliability of coach’s eye (CE) app for the sagittal plane hip, knee, and ankle angles in the touchdown and toe-off while running. Method: Twenty subjects participated in this study. Sixteen reflective markers and cluster markers were attached to the subject’s body. Subjects were asked to run at a self-selected speed on a treadmill. Twenty-five seconds of running were collected for analyzing kinematics of interest. To measure sagittal plane hip, knee and ankle joint angles at touchdown (TD) and toe off (TO), the mean of first ten acceptable consecutive strides was calculated for each angle. A smartphone (Samsung Note5, android) was placed on the right side of the subject so that whole body was simultaneously filmed with 3D gait system during running. All subjects repeated the task with the same running speed after a short interval of 5 minutes in between. The CE app, installed on the smartphone, was used to measure the sagittal plane hip, knee and ankle joint angles at touchdown and toe off the stance phase. Results: Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess test-retest and intra-rater reliability. To analyze the agreement between 3D and 2D outcomes, the Bland and Altman plot was used. The values of ICC were for Ankle at TD (TRR=0.8,IRR=0.94), ankle at TO (TRR=0.9,IRR=0.97), knee at TD (TRR=0.78,IRR=0.98), knee at TO (TRR=0.9,IRR=0.96), hip at TD (TRR=0.75,IRR=0.97), hip at TO (TRR=0.87,IRR=0.98). The Bland and Altman plots displaying a mean difference (MD) and ±2 standard deviation of MD (2SDMD) of 3D and 2D outcomes were for Ankle at TD (MD=3.71,+2SDMD=8.19, -2SDMD=-0.77), ankle at TO (MD=-1.27, +2SDMD=6.22, -2SDMD=-8.76), knee at TD (MD=1.48, +2SDMD=8.21, -2SDMD=-5.25), knee at TO (MD=-6.63, +2SDMD=3.94, -2SDMD=-17.19), hip at TD (MD=1.51, +2SDMD=9.05, -2SDMD=-6.03), hip at TO (MD=-0.18, +2SDMD=12.22, -2SDMD=-12.59). Discussion: The ability that the measurements are accurately reproduced is valuable in the performance and clinical assessment of outcomes of joint angles. The results of this study showed that the intra-rater and test-retest reliability of CE app for all kinematics measured are excellent (ICC ≥ 0.75). The Bland and Altman plots display that there are high differences of values for ankle at TD and knee at TO. Measuring ankle at TD by 2D gait analysis depends on the plane of movement. Since ankle at TD mostly occurs in the none-sagittal plane, the measurements can be different as foot progression angle at TD increases during running. The difference in values of the knee at TD can depend on how 3D and the rater detect the TO during the stance phase of running.
Comparisons of Drop Jump and Countermovement Jump Performance for Male Basketball Players with and without Low-Dye Taping Application
Excessive foot pronation is a well-known risk factor of knee and foot injuries such as patellofemoral pain, patellar and Achilles tendinopathy, and plantar fasciitis. Low-Dye taping (LDT) application is not uncommon for basketball players to control excessive foot pronation for pain control and injury prevention. The primary potential benefits of using LDT include providing additional supports to medial longitudinal arch and restricting the excessive midfoot and subtalar motion in weight-bearing activities such as running and landing. Meanwhile, restrictions provided by the rigid tape may also potentially limit functional joint movements and sports performance. Coaches and athletes need to weigh the potential benefits and harmful effects before making a decision if applying LDT technique is worthwhile or not. However, the influence of using LDT on basketball-related performance such as explosive and reactive strength is not well understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the change of drop jump (DJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) performance before and after LDT application for collegiate male basketball players. In this within-subject crossover study, 12 healthy male basketball players (age: 21.7 ± 2.5 years) with at least 3-year regular basketball training experience were recruited. Navicular drop (ND) test was adopted as the screening and only those with excessive pronation (ND ≥ 10mm) were included. Participants with recent lower limb injury history were excluded. Recruited subjects were required to perform both ND, DJ (on a platform of 40cm height) and CMJ (without arms swing) tests in series during taped and non-taped conditions in the counterbalanced order. Reactive strength index (RSI) was calculated by using the flight time divided by the ground contact time measured. For DJ and CMJ tests, the best of three trials was used for analysis. The difference between taped and non-taped conditions for each test was further calculated through standardized effect ± 90% confidence intervals (CI) with clinical magnitude-based inference (MBI). Paired samples T-test showed significant decrease in ND (-4.68 ± 1.44mm; 95% CI: -3.77, -5.60; p < 0.05) while MBI demonstrated most likely beneficial and large effect (standardize effect: -1.59 ± 0.27) in LDT condition. For DJ test, significant increase in both flight time (25.25 ± 29.96ms; 95% CI: 6.22, 44.28; p < 0.05) and RSI (0.22 ± 0.22; 95% CI: 0.08, 0.36; p < 0.05) were observed. In taped condition, MBI showed very likely beneficial and moderate effect (standardized effect: 0.77 ± 0.49) in flight time, possibly beneficial and small effect (standardized effect: -0.26 ± 0.29) in ground contact time and very likely beneficial and moderate effect (standardized effect: 0.77 ± 0.42) in RSI. No significant difference in CMJ was observed (95% CI: -2.73, 2.08; p > 0.05). For basketball players with pes planus, applying LDT could substantially support the foot by elevating the navicular height and potentially provide acute beneficial effects in reactive strength performance. Meanwhile, no significant harmful effect on CMJ was observed. Basketball players may consider applying LDT before the game or training to enhance the reactive strength performance. However since the observed effects in this study could not generalize to other players without excessive foot pronation, further studies on players with normal foot arch or navicular height are recommended.
Effects of Applying Low-Dye Taping in Performing Double-Leg Squat on Electromyographic Activity of Lower Extremity Muscles for Collegiate Basketball Players with Excessive Foot Pronation
Low-dye taping (LDT) is commonly used for treating foot problems, such as plantar fasciitis, and supporting foot arch for runners and non-athletes patients with pes planus. The potential negative impact of pronated feet leading to tibial and femoral internal rotation via the entire kinetic chain reaction was postulated and identified. The changed lower limb biomechanics potentially leading to poor activation of hip and knee stabilizers, such as gluteus maximus and medius, may associate with higher risk of knee injuries including patellofemoral pain syndrome and ligamentous sprain in many team sports players. It is therefore speculated that foot arch correction with LDT might enhance the use of gluteal muscles. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of applying LDT on surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity of superior gluteus maximus (SGMax), inferior gluteus maximus (IGMax), gluteus medius (GMed) and tibialis anterior (TA) during double-leg squat. 12 male collegiate basketball players (age: 21.72.5 years; body fat: 12.43.6%; navicular drop: 13.72.7mm) with at least three years regular basketball training experience participated in this study. Participants were excluded if they had recent history of lower limb injuries, over 16.6% body fat and lesser than 10mm drop in navicular drop (ND) test. Recruited subjects visited the laboratory once for the within-subject crossover study. Maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) tests on all selected muscles were performed in randomized order followed by sEMG test on double-leg squat during LDT and non-LDT conditions in counterbalanced order. SGMax, IGMax, GMed and TA activities during the entire 2-second concentric and 2-second eccentric phases were normalized and interpreted as %MVIC. The magnitude of the difference between taped and non-taped conditions of each muscle was further assessed via standardized effect90% confidence intervals (CI) with non-clinical magnitude-based inference. Paired samples T-test showed a significant decrease (4.71.4mm) in ND (95% CI: 3.8, 5.6; p < 0.05) while no significant difference was observed between taped and non-taped conditions in sEMG tests for all muscles and contractions (p > 0.05). On top of traditional significant testing, magnitude-based inference showed possibly increase in IGMax activity (small standardized effect: 0.270.44), likely increase in GMed activity (small standardized effect: 0.340.34) and possibly increase in TA activity (small standardized effect: 0.220.29) during eccentric phase. It is speculated that the decrease of navicular drop supported by LDT application could potentially enhance the use of inferior gluteus maximus and gluteus medius especially during eccentric phase in this study. As the eccentric phase of double-leg squat is an important component of landing activities in basketball, further studies on the onset and amount of gluteal activation during jumping and landing activities with LDT are recommended. Since both hip and knee kinematics were not measured in this study, the underlying cause of the observed increase in gluteal activation during squat after LDT is inconclusive. In this regard, the investigation of relationships between LDT application, ND, hip and knee kinematics, and gluteal muscle activity during sports specific jumping and landing tasks should be focused in the future.
The Use of Global Positioning Systems to Evaluate the Effect of Protein and Carbohydrate Supplementation on Collegiate Soccer Performance
This study aimed to identify the effect of concurrent nutritional supplementation on soccer performance as players ingested either carbohydrate CHO (52 g of Cytocarb Maltodextrin) or a combined carbohydrate and protein PRO (Muscle Milk Pro Series 17g CHO + 50 g PRO liquid) supplement. Twelve male, junior college soccer players (age: 18 ± 6 years, wt. 73.3 ± 8.6 kg) completed three trials wearing global positioning systems (GPS) to measure total running distance and sprinting distance during soccer simulation games. The first match simulation was a baseline match with no supplementation. One hour prior to the second match, simulation players were randomly assigned to one of two supplemental groups CHO or CHO + PRO. A repeated measures ANOVA with a Greenhouse-Geisser correction revealed a statistically significant increase in the total distance run for the CHO supplementation group in comparison to the CHO + PRO group (10.19 ± .200 km vs. 9.77± .194km, p = .035). Although the total running distance was meaningfully influenced by the supplementation, the pattern of response for total sprinting distance was not influenced by supplementation. There was a decline in sprinting distance and total running distance from first half to second half, both for the control (M = -0.01 km, SD = 0.17) and CHO supplementation group (-0.04 km, SD = .19), although these differences were not statistically meaningful. There was a positive correlation between sprinting distance and total distance, which was statistically significant (r = -.514, n = 36, p = .01) In conclusion, supplementation influenced the pattern of activity and demonstrated between-trial differences.
Association of Depression with Physical Inactivity and Time Watching Television: A Cross-Sectional Study with the Brazilian Population PNS, 2013
The relationship between physical activity (PA) and depression has been investigated, in both, observational and clinical studies: PA can integrate the treatments for depression; the physical inactivity (PI) may contribute to increase depression symptoms; and on the other hand, emotional problems can decrease PA. The main of this study was analyze the association among leisure and transportation PI and time watching television (TV) according to depression (minor and major), evaluated with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). The association was also analyzed by gender. This is a cross-sectional study. Data were obtained from the National Health Survey 2013 (PNS), performed with representative sample of the Brazilian adult population, in 2013. The PNS collected information from 60,202 individuals, aged 18 years or more. The independent variable were: leisure time physical inactivity (LTPI), considering inactive or insufficiently actives (categories were linked for analyzes), those who do not performed a minimum of 150 or 74 minutes of moderate or vigorous LTPA, respectively, by week; transportation physical inactivity (TPI), individuals who did not reached 150 minutes, by week, travelling by bicycle or on foot to work or other activities; daily time watching TV > 5 hours. The principal independent variable was depression, identified by PHQ-9. Individuals were classified with major depression, with > 5 symptoms, more than seven days, but one of the symptoms was “depressive mood” or “lack of interest or pleasure”. The others had minor depression. The variables used to adjustment were gender, age, schooling and chronic disease. The prevalence of LTPI, TPI and TV time were estimated according to depression, and differences were tested with Chi-Square test. Adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated using multiple Poisson regression models. The analyzes also had stratification by gender. Mean age of the studied population was 42.9 years old (CI95%:42.6-43.2) and 52.9% were women. 77.5% and 68.1% were inactive or insufficiently active in leisure and transportation, respectively and 13.3% spent time watching TV 5 > hours. 6% and 4.1% of the Brazilian population were diagnosed with minor or major depression. LTPI prevalence was 5% and 9% higher among individuals with minor and major depression, respectively, comparing with no depression. The prevalence of TPI was 7% higher in those with major depression. Considering larger time watching TV, the prevalence was 45% and 74% higher among those with minor and major depression, respectively. Analyzing by gender, the associations were greater in men than women and TPI was note be associated, in women. The study detected the higher prevalence of leisure time physical inactivity and, especially, time spent watching TV, among individuals with major and minor depression, after to adjust for a number of potential confounding factors. TPI was only associated with major disorders and among men. Considering the cross-sectional design of the research, these associations can point out the importance of the mental problems control of the population to increase PA and decrease the sedentary lifestyle; on the other hand, the study highlight the need of interventions by encouraging people with depression, to practice PA, even to transportation.
The Effect of Modified Posterior Shoulder Stretching Exercises on Posterior Shoulder Tightness, Shoulder Pain, and Dysfunction in Patients with Subacromial Impingement
Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of the Wilk’s modified two different stretching exercises on posterior shoulder tightness, pain, and dysfunction in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS). Method: This study was carried out on 67 patients who have more than 15° difference in shoulder internal rotation range of motion between two sides and had been diagnosed as SIS. Before treatment, all patients were randomly assigned into three groups. Standard physiotherapy programme was applied to the Group 3 (n=23), standard physiotherapy program with Wilk’s modified cross-body stretching exercises were applied to Group 1 (n=22), and standard physiotherapy program with Wilk’s modified sleeper stretching exercises were applied to Group 2 (n= 23). All the patients received 20 sessions of physiotherapy during 4 weeks, 5 days in a week by a physiotherapist. The patients continued their exercises at home at the weekends. Pain severity, shoulder rotation range of motion, posterior shoulder tightness, upper extremity functionality with Constant and Murley Score (CMS) and disability level with The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Score (QuickDASH) were evaluated before and after physiotherapy programme. Results: Before treatment, demographic and anthropometric characteristics were similar in groups and there was no statistical difference (p > 0.05). It was determined that pain severity decreased, shoulder rotation range of motion, posterior shoulder tightness, upper extremity functionality, and disability were improved after physiotherapy in both groups (p < 0.05). Group 1 and 2 had better results in terms of reduction of pain severity during activity, increase in shoulder rotation range of motion, posterior shoulder mobility and upper extremity functionality and improvement in upper extremity disability, compared to Group 3 (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Modified posterior shoulder stretching exercises in addition to standard physiotherapy programme is more effective for reduction of pain during activity, to improve shoulder rotation range of motion, posterior shoulder mobility, and upper extremity functionality in patients with SIS compared to standard physiotherapy programme alone.
Design and Biomechanical Analysis of a Transtibial Prosthesis for Cyclists of the Colombian Team Paralympic
The training of cilsitas with some type of disability finds in the technological development an indispensable ally, generating every day advances to contribute to the quality of life allowing to maximize the capacities of the athletes. The performance of a cyclist depends on physiological and biomechanical factors, such as aerodynamic profile, bicycle measurements, connecting rod length, pedaling systems, type of competition, among others. This study particularly focuses on the description of the dynamic model of a transtibial prosthesis for Paralympic cyclists. To make the model, two points are chosen: in the radius centers of rotation of the plate and pinion of the track bicycle. The parametric scheme of the track bike represents a model of 6 degrees of freedom due to the displacement in X - Y of each of the reference points of the angles of the curve profile β, cant of the velodrome α and the angle of rotation of the connecting rod φ. The force exerted on the crank of the bicycle varies according to the angles of the curve profile β, the velodrome cant of α and the angle of rotation of the crank φ. The behavior is analyzed through the Matlab R2015a software. The average strength that a cyclist exerts on the cranks of a bicycle is 1,607.1 N, the Paralympic cyclist must perform a force on each crank about 803.6 N. Once the maximum force associated with the movement has been determined, it is continued to the dynamic modeling of the transtibial prosthesis that represents a model of 6 degrees of freedom with displacement in X - Y in relation to the angles of rotation of the hip π, knee γ and ankle λ. Subsequently, an analysis of the kinematic behavior of the prosthesis was carried out by means of SolidWorks 2017 and Matlab R2015a, which was used to model and analyze the variation of the hip angles π, knee γ and ankle of the λ prosthesis. The reaction forces generated in the prosthesis were performed on the ankle of the prosthesis, performing the summation of forces on the X and Y axes. The same analysis was then applied to the tibia of the prosthesis and the socket. The reaction force of the parts of the prosthesis varies according to the hip angles π, knee γ and ankle of the prosthesis λ. Therefore, it can be deduced that the maximum forces experienced by the ankle of the prosthesis is 933.6 N on the X axis and 2.160.5 N on the Y axis. Finally, it is calculated that the maximum forces experienced by the tibia and the socket of the transtibial prosthesis in high performance competitions is 3.266 N on the X axis and 1.357 N on the Y axis. In conclusion, it can be said that the performance of the cyclist depends on several physiological factors, linked to biomechanics of training. The influence of biomechanical factors such as aerodynamics, bicycle measurements, connecting rod length, or non-circular pedaling systems on the cyclist performance.
Consumption of Animal and Vegetable Protein on Muscle Power in Road Cyclists from 18 to 20 Years in Bogota, Colombia
Athletes who usually use protein supplements, are those who practice strength and power sports, whose goal is to achieve a large muscle mass. However, it has also been explored in sports or endurance activities such as cycling, and where despite requiring high power, prominent muscle development can impede good competitive performance due to the determinant of body mass for good performance of the athlete body. This research shows, the effect with protein supplements establishes a protein - muscle mass ratio, although in a lesser proportion the relationship between protein types and muscle power. Thus, we intend to explore as a first approximation, the behavior of muscle power in lower limbs after the intake of two protein supplements from different sources. The aim of the study was to describe the behavior of muscle power in lower limbs after the consumption of animal protein (AP) and vegetable protein (VP) in four route cyclists from 18 to 20 years of the Bogota cycling league. The methodological design of this study is quantitative, with a non-probabilistic sampling, based on a pre-experimental model. The jumping power was evaluated before and after the intervention by means of the squat jump test (SJ), Counter movement jump (CMJ) and Abalacov (AB). Cyclists consumed a drink with whey protein and a soy isolate after training four times a week for three months. The amount of protein in each cyclist, was calculated according to body weight (0.5 g / kg of muscle mass). The results show that subjects who consumed PV improved muscle strength and landing strength. In contrast, the power and landing force decreased for subjects who consumed PA. For the group that consumed PV, the increase was positive at 164.26 watts, 135.70 watts and 33.96 watts for the AB, SJ and CMJ jumps respectively. While for PA, the differences of the medians were negative at -32.29 watts, -82.79 watts and -143.86 watts for the AB, SJ and CMJ jumps respectively. The differences of the medians in the AB jump were positive for both the PV (121.61 Newton) and PA (454.34 Newton) cases, however, the difference was greater for PA. For the SJ jump, the difference for the PA cases was 371.52 Newton, while for the PV cases the difference was negative -448.56 Newton, so the difference was greater in the SJ jump for PA. In jump CMJ, the differences of the medians were negative for the cases of PA and PV, being -7.05 for PA and - 958.2 for PV. So the difference was greater for PA. The conclusion of this study shows that serum protein supplementation showed no improvement in muscle power in the lower limbs of the cyclists studied, which could suggest that whey protein does not have a beneficial effect on performance in terms of power, either, showed an impact on body composition. In contrast, supplementation with soy isolate showed positive effects on muscle power, body.
Comparison of Effects over the Autonomic Nervous System When Using Force Training and Interval Training in Indoor Cycling with University Students
In the last decade interval training (IT) has gained importance when is compare with strength training (ST). However, there are few studies analyzing the impact of these training over the autonomic nervous system (ANS). This work has aimed to compare the activity of the autonomic nervous system, when is expose to an IT or ST indoor cycling mode. After approval by the ethics committee, a cross-over clinical trial with 22 healthy participants (age 21 ± 3 years) was implemented. The selection of participants for the groups with sequence force-interval (F-I) and interval-force (I-F) was made randomly with assignation of 11 participants for each group. The temporal series of heart rate was obtained before and after each training using the POLAR TEAM® heart monitor. The evaluation of the ANS was performed with spectral analysis of the heart rate variability (HRV) using the fast Fourier transform (Kubios software). A training of 8 weeks in each sequence (4 weeks with each training) with an intermediate period of two weeks of washout was implemented for each group. The power parameter of the HRV in the low frequency band (LF = 0.04-0.15Hz related to the sympathetic nervous system), high frequency (HF = 0.15-0.4Hz, related to the parasympathetic) and LF/HF (with reference to a modulation of parasympathetic over the sympathetic), were calculated. Afterward, the difference between the parameters before and after was realized. Then, to evaluate statistical differences between each training was implemented the method of Wellek (Wellek and Blettner, 2012, Medicine, 109 (15), 276-81). To determine the difference of effect over parasympathetic when FT and IT are used, the T test is implemented obtaining a T value of 0.73 with p-value ≤ 0.1. For the sympathetic was obtained a T of 0.33 with p ≤ 0.1 and for LF/HF the T was 1.44 with a p ≥ 0.1. Then, the carry over effect was evaluated and was not present. Significant changes over autonomic activity with strength or interval training were not observed. However, a modulation of the parasympathetic over the sympathetic can be observed. Probably, these findings should be explained because the sample is little and/or the time of training was insufficient to generate changes.
Contribution of Football Club Jerseys towards English Premier League Fans’ Loyalty in Nigeria
The globalization of football especially among youth over the decade is uprising. Nigeria youth displaying football jerseys at every opportunity is an acceptance of football globalization. The Love for English Premier League (EPL) football jersey is very strong among Nigeria fans. Football club jerseys of the EPL are a common sports product among fans in Nigeria. This study investigates the contribution of football club jerseys towards EPL fans&rsquo; loyalty in Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was used for the study. The population consists of EPL fans in Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique (fish bowl without replacement) was used to select two states from the six geo-political zones. Purposive sampling technique was used to pick eight viewing centres while accidental sampling technique was used to pick five vendor stands from each State. An average of 250 respondents was selected from each state. A total of 3,200 respondents participated in the research. Two research instruments were used. A self-developed structured questionnaire on Football Jersey Scale (FJS): The instrument consists of 10 items. Fans Loyalty Scale (FLS): The instrument was modified from the psychological commitment to team (PCT) scale, and consists of 20 items. The Cronbach&rsquo;s Alpha reliability coefficient of 0.72 and 0.75 was obtained, respectively. The hypothesis was tested at 0.05 significant levels. Data were analysed using frequency, percentages count, pie chart and multiple regressions. The result showed that the b-value of football club jersey is 0.148 also the standard regression coefficient (Beta) is 0.089. The t = 4.759 is statistically significant at p = 0.000. This signified a relative contribution of football club jersey on EPL fans loyalty in Nigeria. Club jersey, which is the most outstanding identifier of every club, was found to significantly predict loyalty. The jersey on the body of the fan has become the site for a declaration of loyalty which becomes available for social interaction and negotiation. The Nigerian local league clubs in an attempt to keep Nigerian fans loyal must borrow a leaf from their European counterparts.
Effects of Lower and Upper Body Plyometric Training on Electrocardiogram Parameters of University Athletes
Plyometric training is a form of specialised strength training that uses fast muscular contractions to improve power and speed in sports conditioning by coaches and athletes. Despite its useful role in sports conditioning programme, the information about plyometric training on the athletes cardiovascular health especially Electrocardiogram (ECG) has not been established in the literature. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of lower and upper body plyometric training on ECG of athletes. The study was guided by three null hypotheses. Quasi–experimental research design was adopted for the study. Seventy-two university male athletes constituted the population of the study. Thirty male athletes aged 18 to 24 years volunteered to participate in the study, but only twenty-three completed the study. The volunteered athletes were apparently healthy, physically active and free of any lower and upper extremity bone injuries for past one year and they had no medical or orthopedic injuries that may affect their participation in the study. Ten subjects were purposively assigned to one of the three groups: lower body plyometric training (LBPT), upper body plyometric training (UBPT), and control (C). Training consisted of six plyometric exercises: lower (ankle hops, squat jumps, tuck jumps) and upper body plyometric training (push-ups, medicine ball-chest throws and side throws) with moderate intensity. The general data were collated and analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 22.0). The research questions were answered using mean and standard deviation, while paired samples t-test was also used to test for the hypotheses. The results revealed that athletes who were trained using LBPT had reduced ECG parameters better than those in the control group. The results also revealed that athletes who were trained using both LBPT and UBPT indicated lack of significant differences following ten weeks plyometric training than those in the control group in the ECG parameters except in Q wave, R wave and S wave (QRS) complex. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended among others that coaches should include both LBPT and UBPT as part of athletes’ overall training programme from primary to tertiary institution to optimise performance as well as reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and promotes good healthy lifestyle.
The Effect of 12-Week Pilates Training on Flexibility and Level of Perceived Exertion of Back Muscles among Karate Players
Developing flexibility, by using pilates, would be useful for karate players by reducing the stiffness of muscles and tendons. This study aimed to determine the effects of 12-week pilates training on flexibility, and level of perceived exertion of back muscles among karate players. In this experimental study, 29 male karate players (age: 16-18 years) were randomized to pilates (n=15), and control (n=14) groups and the assessments were done in baseline and after 12-week intervention. Both groups completed 12-week of intervention (2 hours of training, 3 times weekly). The experimental group performed 30 minutes pilates within their warm-up and preparation phase, where the control group only attended their usual karate training. Digital backward flexmeter was used to evaluate the trunk extensors flexibility, and digital forward flexmeter was used to measure the trunk flexors flexibility. Borg CR-10 Scale was also used to determine the perceived exertion of back muscles. Independent samples t-test and paired sample t-test were used to analyze the data. There was a significant difference between the mean score of experimental and control groups in the level of backward trunk flexibility (P < 0.05), forward trunk flexibility (P < 0.05) after 12-week intervention. The results of Borg CR-10 scale showed a significant improvement in pilates group (P < 0.05). Karate instructors, coaches, and athletes can integrate pilates exercises with karate training in order to improve the flexibility, and level of perceived exertion of back muscles.
Effect of Post Circuit Resistance Exercise Glucose Feeding on Energy and Hormonal Indexes in Plasma and Lymphocyte in Free-Style Wrestlers
The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of glucose feeding on energy and hormonal indexes in plasma and lymphocyte immediately after wrestling – base techniques circuit exercise (WBTCE) in young male freestyle wrestlers. Sixteen wrestlers (weight = 75/45 ± 12/92 kg, age = 22/29 ± 0/90 years, BMI = 26/23 ± 2/64 kg/m²) were randomly divided into two groups: control (water), glucose (2 gr per kg body weight). Blood samples were obtained before, immediately, and 90 minutes of the post-exercise recovery period. Glucose (2 g/kg of body weight, 1W/5V) and water (equal volumes) solutions were given immediately after the second blood sampling. Data were analyzed by using an ANOVA (a repeated measure) and a suitable post hoc test (LSD). A significant decrease was observed in lymphocytes glycogen immediately after exercise (P < 0.001). In the experimental group, increase Lymphocyte glycogen concentration (P < 0.028) than in the control group in 90 min post-exercise. Plasma glucose concentrations increased in all groups immediately after exercise (P < 0.05). Plasma insulin concentrations in both groups decreased immediately after exercise, but at 90 min after exercise, its level was significantly increased only in glucose group (P < 0.001). Our results suggested that WBTCE protocol could be affected cellular energy sources and hormonal response. Furthermore, Glucose consumption can increase the lymphocyte glycogen and better energy within the cell.
The Effect of Four-Week Resistance Exercise along with Milk Consumption on NT-proBNP and Plasma Troponin I
The aim of this study is to investigate four-week resistance exercise and milk supplement on NT-proBNP and plasma troponin I of male students. Concerning the methodology of the study, 21 senior high school students of Ardebil city were selected. The selected subjects were randomly shared in three groups of control, exercise- water and exercise- milk. The exercise program includes resistance exercise for a big muscle group. The subjects of control group rested during the study and did not participate in any training. The subjects of exercise- water experimental group immediately received 400 cc water after exercise and exercise- milk group immediately received 400 cc low fat milk. Control-water groups consumed the same amount of water. 48 hours before and after the last exercise session, the blood sample of the subjects were taken for measuring the variables. NT-proBNP and Troponin I concentrations were measured by ELISA. For data analysis, one-way variance analysis test, correlated t-test and Bonferroni post hoc test were used. The significant difference of p &le; 0.05 was accepted. Resistance training along with milk consumption leads to increase of plasma NT-proBNP, however; this increase has not reached the significant level. Furthermore, meaningful increase was observed in plasma NT&ndash;proBNP in exercise group between pretest and posttest values. Furthermore, no meaningful difference was observed between groups in terms of Troponin I after milk consumption. It seems that endurance exercises lead to change in the structure of heart muscle and is along with an increase of NT-proBNP. Furthermore, there is the possibility that milk consumption can lead to release of heart troponin I. The mechanism through which protein supplements have been put on heart troponin I is unknown and requires more research.
The Effects of Menstrual Phase on Upper and Lower Body Anaerobic Performance in College-Aged Women
Introduction: With the rate of female collegiate and professional athletes on the rise in recent decades, fluctuations in physical performance in relation to the menstrual cycle is an important area of study. PURPOSE: The purpose of this research was to compare differences in upper and lower body maximal anaerobic capacities across a single menstrual cycle. Methode: Participants (n=11) met a total of four times; once for familiarization and again on day 1 of menses (follicular phase), day 14 (ovulation), and day 21 (luteal phase) respectively. Upper body power was assessed using a bench press weight of ~50% of the participant’s predetermined 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) on a ballistic measurement system and variables included peak force (N), mean force (N), peak power (W), mean power (W), and peak velocity (m/s). Lower body power output was collected using a standard Wingate test. The variables of interest were anaerobic capacity (w/kg), peak power (W), mean power (W), fatigue index (W/s), and total work (J). Result: Statistical significance was not observed (p > 0.05) in any of the aforementioned variables after completing multiple one ways of analyses of variances (ANOVAs) with repeated measures on time. Conclusion: Within the parameters of this research, neither female upper nor lower body power output differed across the menstrual cycle when analyzed using 50% of one repetition (1RM) maximal bench press and the 30-second maximal effort cycle ergometer Wingate test. Therefore, researchers should not alter their subject populations due to the incorrect assumption that power output may be influenced by the menstrual cycle.
Attitude towards Doping of High-Performance Athletes in a Sports Institute of the City of Medellin, Colombia
Introduction: Doping is a prohibited practice in competitive sports with potential adverse effects; therefore, it is crucial to describe the attitudes of athletes towards this behavior and to determine which o these increase the susceptibility to carry out this practice. Objective: To determine the attitude of high-performance athletes towards doping in a sports institute in the city of Medellin, Colombia. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study during 2016, with a sample taken to convenience consisting of athletes over 18 years old enrolled in a sports institute of the city of Medellin (Colombia). The athletes filled by themselves the Petroczi and Aidman questionnaire: Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale (PEAS) adapted to the Spanish language by Morente-Sánchez et al. This scale has 17 items with likert answer options, with a score ranging from 1 to 6, with a higher score indicating a stronger tendency towards doping practices. Results: 112 athletes were included with an average age of 21.6 years old, a 60% of them were male and the most frequent sports were karate 17%, judo 12.5% and athletics 9.8%. The average score of the questionnaire was 35.5 points of a 102 possible points. The lowest score was obtained in the following items: Is Doping necessary 1,4 and Doping isn’t cheating, everyone does it 1,5. Conclusion: In our population, there is a low tendency towards doping practices.
Predictor Factors in Predictive Model of Soccer Talent Identification among Male Players Aged 14 to 17 Years
The longitudinal study is conducted to identify predictive factors of soccer talent among male players aged 14 to 17 years. Convenience sampling involving elite respondents (n=20) and sub-elite respondents (n=20) male soccer players. Descriptive statistics were reported as frequencies and percentages. The inferential statistical analysis is used to report the status of reliability, independent samples t-test, paired samples t-test, and multiple regression analysis. Generally, there are differences in mean of height, muscular strength, muscular endurance, cardiovascular endurance, task orientation, cognitive anxiety, self-confidence, juggling skills, short pass skills, long pass skills, dribbling skills, and shooting skills for 20 elite players and sub-elite players. Accordingly, there was a significant difference between pre and post-test for thirteen variables of height, weight, fat percentage, muscle strength, muscle endurance, cardiovascular endurance, flexibility, BMI, task orientation, juggling skills, short pass skills, a long pass skills, and dribbling skills. Based on the first predictive factors (physical), second predictive factors (fitness), third predictive factors (psychological), and fourth predictive factors (skills in playing football) pledged to the soccer talent; four multiple regression models were produced. The first predictive factor (physical) contributed 53.5 percent, supported by height and percentage of fat in soccer talents. The second predictive factor (fitness) contributed 63.2 percent and the third predictive factors (psychology) contributed 66.4 percent of soccer talent. The fourth predictive factors (skills) contributed 59.0 percent of soccer talent. The four multiple regression models could be used as a guide for talent scouting for soccer players of the future.
An Elaborated Software Solution: The Tennis Ranking System
Athletes and spectators depend on the tennis ranking system to represent the truest caliber of athletic prowess; a careful look at the current ranking system though, reveals its main weakness: it undermines expectations of fans and players. Our study proposes several key changes to the existing ranking formula that provide a fair and accurate approach to measure player performance. The study proposes a modification of the system to value: participation, continued advancement, and overall achievement. The new ranking formula facilitates closing the trust gap, encouraging competition equality, engaging the fan base, attracting investment, and promoting tennis involvement worldwide. To probe the crux of our main contention we performed week-by-week comparisons between results procured from the current and proposed formulae. After performing this rigorous case-study of top players of each gender, the findings strongly indicated that there is identifiable inflation in the ranks and enhanced the conviction that the current system should be updated. The new system is accompanied by a web-based software package freely available to anyone involved or interested in tennis rankings. The software package is designed to automatically calculate new player rankings based on a responsive, multi-faceted formula that also generates projected point scenarios and provides separate rankings for the three different court surfaces. By taking a critical look at the current tennis ranking system with consideration to the perspective of fans, players, and businesses involved, an upgrade is in order for it to maintain the balance of trust between fans and the evaluation process. In closure, this proposed solution increases fair play competition, eliminates rank inflation, and better engages fans, players, and sponsors by bringing in a new era of professional tennis.
Football Chants in Israel: Persistent Values and Changing Trends
Fans’ chants in sports stadium have, over the years, become an integral part of the spectator experience. While chants add color, atmosphere, and a demonstration of fans’ support for their team, chants also play a significant role in defining fans’ perceptions of their team’s identity and its differentiation from other teams. An analysis of football chants may therefore shed light on fans’ deep-seated worldviews of their own role, their team, the sport in general, and even life itself. This study, based on an analysis of Israeli football chants over years, identifies key changing and stable perceptions of football fans. Overall 94 chants collected, over a period of five decades. After a pilot study, the chants organized in two groups (one covering 1970-1999 and the other 2000-2016). The chants analyzed through qualitative content analysis in order to understand fans values as a reflection of the society. Findings point to several values that have remained stable over years, including fans’ attitudes toward their team and its rivals, and their attitude toward God. On the other hand, recently emerging phenomena such as radicalization of hatred toward the commercialization of sport reflect social and cultural changes, both in and outside the world of sport.
3D Biomechanical Analysis in Shot Put Techniques of International Throwers
Aim: The research aims at doing a 3 Dimension biomechanical analysis in the shot put techniques of International throwers to evaluate the performance. Research Method: The researcher adopted the descriptive method and the data was subjected to calculate by using Pearson’s product moment correlation for the correlation of the biomechanical parameters with the performance of shot put throw. In all the analyses, the 5% critical level (p ≤ 0.05) was considered to indicate statistical significance. Research Sample: Eight (N=08) international shot putters using rotational/glide technique in male category was selected as subjects for the study. The researcher used the following methods and tools to obtain reliable measurements the instrument which was used for the purpose of present study namely the tesscorn slow-motion camera, specialized motion analyzer software, 7.260 kg Shot Put (for a male shot-putter) and steel tape. All measurement pertaining to the biomechanical variables was taken by the principal investigator so that data collected for the present study was considered reliable. Results: The finding of the study showed that negative significant relationship between the angular velocity right shoulder, acceleration distance at pre flight (-0.70), (-0.72) respectively were obtained, the angular displacement of knee, angular velocity right shoulder and acceleration distance at flight (0.81), (0.75) and (0.71) respectively were obtained, the angular velocity right shoulder and acceleration distance at transition phase (0.77), (0.79) respectively were obtained and angular displacement of knee, angular velocity right shoulder, release velocity shot, angle of release, height of release, projected distance and measured distance as the values (0.76), (0.77), (-0.83), (-0.79), (-0.77), (0.99) and (1.00) were found higher than the tabulated value at 0.05 level of significance. On the other hand, there exists an insignificant relationship between the performance of shot put and acceleration distance [m], angular displacement shot, C.G at release and horizontal release distance on the technique of shot put.
The Value of Dynamic Priorities in Motor Learning between Some Basic Skills in Beginner's Basketball, U14 Years
The goals of this study are to find ways to determine the value of dynamic priorities in motor learning between some basic skills in beginner’s basketball (U14), based on skills of shooting and defense against the shooter. Our role is to expose the statistical results in compare & correlation between samples of study in tests skills for the shooting and defense against the shooter. In order to achieve this objective, we have chosen 40 boys in middle school represented in four groups, two controls group’s (CS1, CS2) ,and two experimental groups (ES1: training on skill of shooting, skill of defense against the shooter, ES2: experimental group training on skill of defense against the shooter, skill of shooting). For the statistical analysis, we have chosen (F & T) tests for the statistical differences, and test (R) for the correlation analysis. Based on the analyses statistics, we confirm the importance of classifying priorities of basketball basic skills during the motor learning process. Admit that the benefits of experimental group training are to economics in the time needed for acquiring new motor kinetic skills in basketball. In the priority of ES2 as successful dynamic motor learning method to enhance the basic skills among beginner’s basketball.
Utilizing the Analytic Hierarchy Process in Improving Performances of Blind Judo
Identifying, structuring, and racking the most important factors related to improving athletes&rsquo; performances could pave the way for improve training system. The purpose of this study was to identify the relative importance factors to improve performance of the of judo athletes with visual impairments, including blindness by using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). After reviewing the literature, the relative importance of factors affecting performance of the blind judo was selected. A group of expert reviewed the first draft of the questionnaires, and then finally selected performance factors were classified into the major categories of techniques, physical fitness, and psychological categories. Later, a pre-selected experts group was asked to review the final version of questionnaire and confirm the priories of performance factors. The order of priority was determined by performing pairwise comparisons using Expert Choice 2000. Results indicated that "grappling" (.303) and "throwing" (.234) were the most important lower hierarchy factors for blind judo skills. In addition, the most important physical factors affecting performance were "muscular strength and endurance" (.238). Further, among other psychological factors "competitive anxiety" (.393) was important factor that affects performance. It is important to offer psychological skills training to reduce anxiety of judo athletes with visual impairments and blindness, so they can compete in their optimal states. These findings offer insights into what should be considered when determining factors to improve performance of judo athletes with visual impairments and blindness.
The Effectiveness of an Injury Prevention Workshop in Increasing Knowledge and Understanding in Grass-Root Youth Coaches
There are well-known challenges to implementing injury prevention training for youth players but no data are available on the knowledge and understanding of deliverers of such programmes at grass root level. To increase adoption and adherence to such programmes coach knowledge and understanding of injury risk and prevention is essential. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine grass-root coaches knowledge and understanding of injury risk and prevention in youth players. 68 grass root coaches (18 females and 50 males) who were attending a one-day injury prevention workshop completed a modified validated questionnaire exploring knowledge and understanding of injury risk and prevention in youth players. Only 59% of coaches agreed that youth players are at a high risk of suffering an injury. There were high levels of agreement that injuries can have negative impacts on team performance (75%) and can cause physical problems in later life (85%), however only around half of coaches felt that injuries affect youth players current quality of life (59%). There was strong agreement that it is possible to prevent injuries in youth players (84%), but coaches were generally unaware of programs to help prevent injuries (84%), and only 9% used some form of injury prevention program. Despite this, nearly all coaches felt that their coaching could benefit from a greater understanding of growth and maturation (91%), injury prevention programmes (91%) and specific exercises (93%) for youth athletes. 17% of coaches rated their knowledge of injury prevention as good/very good at the start of the workshop and this increased to 94% at the end of the workshop. 62% of coaches identified their attitude towards injury prevention as indifferent at the start of the workshop compared with only 1% at the end. Only 14% of coaches at the start of the workshop were confident to deliver an injury prevention session but 83% stated they were confident by the end of the workshop. Finally, 98% of coaches felt that the workshop provided them with the confidence and the knowledge to deliver an injury prevention session and 98% suggested that they would implement injury prevention into their coaching. These data suggest that there is a lack of understanding of grass root coaches that children are a high-risk group for injuries, and that such injuries impact on current quality of life. Despite understanding that injuries can be prevented most grass root coaches do not have the knowledge to implement injury prevention into their coaching and very few do. There is a common consensus amongst these coaches that a greater understanding of such programmes will enhance their coaching. The injury prevention workshop appears to have increased the knowledge and changed the attitude of coaches towards injury prevention. All coaches felt that the workshop provided them with the tools to adopt, implement and deliver injury prevention in their coaching. These data highlight that there is a clear need for education regarding injury risk and prevention to be embedded within the coach education pathway, especially at grass root level.
Physical Activity and Mental Health: A Cross-Sectional Investigation into the Relationship of Specific Physical Activity Domains and Mental Well-Being
Background: Research indicates that physical activity (PA) protects us from developing mental disorders. The knowledge regarding optimal domain, intensity, type, context, and amount of PA promotion for the prevention of mental disorders is sparse and incoherent. The objective of this study is to determine the relationship between PA domains and mental well-being, and whether associations vary by domain, amount, context, intensity, and type of PA. Methods: 310 individuals (age: 25 yrs., SD 7; 73% female) completed a questionnaire on personal patterns of their PA behaviour (IPQA) and their mental health (Centre of Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scale, the subjective physical well-being (FEW-16)). Linear and multiple regression were used for analysis. Findings: Individuals who met the PA recommendation (N=269) reported higher scores on subjective physical well-being than those who did not meet the PA recommendations (N=41). Whilst vigorous intensity PA predicts subjective well-being (β = .122, p = .028), it also correlates with depression. The more vigorously physically active a person is, the higher the depression score (β = .127, p = .026). The strongest impact of PA on mental well-being can be seen in the transport domain. A positive linear correlation on subjective physical well-being (β =.175, p = .002), and a negative linear correlation for anxiety (β =-.142, p = .011) and depression (β = -.164, p = .004) was found. Multiple regression analysis indicates similar results: Time spent in active transport on the bicycle significantly lowers anxiety and depression scores and enhances subjective physical well-being. The more time a participant spends using the bicycle for transport, the lower the depression (β = -.143, p = .013) and anxiety scores (β = -.111,p = .050). Conclusions: Meeting the PA recommendations enhances subjective physical well-being. Active transport has a substantial impact on mental well-being. Findings have implications for policymakers, employers, public health experts and civil society. A stronger focus on the promotion and protection of health through active transport is recommended. Inter-sectoral exchange, outside the health sector, is required. Health systems must engage other sectors in adopting policies that maximize possible health gains.