Dynamic Analysis of Submerged Floating Tunnel Subjected to Hydrodynamic and Seismic Loadings
Submerged floating tunnel (SFT) is a new solution for the transportation infrastructure through sea straits, fjords, and inland waters, and can be a good alternative to long span suspension bridges. SFT is a massive cylindrical structure that floats at a certain depth below the water surface and subjected to extreme environmental conditions. The identification of dominant structural response of SFT becomes more important due to intended environmental conditions for the design of SFT. The time domain dynamic problem of SFT moored by vertical and inclined mooring cables/anchors is formulated. The dynamic time history analysis of SFT subjected to hydrodynamic and seismic excitations is performed. The SFT is modeled by finite element 3D beam, and the mooring cables are modeled by truss elements. Based on the dynamic time history analysis the displacements and internal forces of SFT were calculated. The response of SFT is presented for hydrodynamic and seismic excitations. The transverse internal forces of SFT were the maximum compared to vertical direction, for both hydrodynamic and seismic cases; this indicates that the cable system provides very small stiffness in transverse direction as compared to vertical direction of SFT.
Investigation of Thermal Comfort Conditions of Vernacular Buildings Taking into Consideration Various Use Patterns: A Case Study
The main goal of this paper is to explore the thermal comfort conditions in traditional buildings during all seasons of the year taking into consideration various use patterns. For this purpose a dwelling of vernacular architecture is selected and data regarding the indoor and outdoor air and surface temperature as well as the relative humidity are collected. These measurements are conducted in situ during the period of a year. Also, this building is occupied periodically and a calendar of occupancy was kept (duration of residence, hours of heating system operation, hours of natural ventilation, etc.) in order to correlate the indoor conditions recorded with the use patterns via statistical analysis. Furthermore, the effect of the high thermal inertia of the stone masonry walls and the different orientation of the rooms is addressed. Thus, this paper concludes in some interesting results on the effect of the users in the indoor climate conditions in the case of buildings with high thermal inertia envelops.
Evaluation of the Sustainability of Greek Vernacular Architecture in Different Climate Zones: Architectural Typology and Building Physics
Investigating the integration of bioclimatic design into vernacular architecture could lead to interesting results regarding the preservation of cultural heritage while enhancing the energy efficiency of historic buildings. Furthermore, these recognized principles and systems of bioclimatic design in vernacular settlements could be applied to modern architecture and thus to new buildings in such areas. This study introduces an approach to categorizing distinct technologies and design principles of bioclimatic design based on a thoughtful approach to various climatic zones and environment in Greece (mountainous areas, islands and lowlands). For this purpose, various types of dwellings are evaluated for their response to climate, regarding the layout of the buildings (orientation, floor plans’ shape, semi-open spaces), the site planning, the openings (size, position, protection), the building envelope (walls: construction materials-thickness, roof construction detailing) and the migratory living pattern according to seasonal needs. As a result, various passive design principles (that could be adapted to current architectural practice in such areas, in order to optimize the relationship between site, building, climate and energy efficiency) are proposed.
Experimental Studies of Sigma Thin-Walled Beams Strengthen by Carbon Fibber Reinforcement Polymers Tapes
The review of selected methods of strengthening of steel structures with Carbon Fiber Reinforcement Polymer (CFRP) tapes and the analysis of influence of composite materials on the steel thin-walled elements is performed in this paper. The study is also focused to the problem of applying fast and effective strengthening methods of the steel structures made of thin-walled profiles. It is worth to note that the issue of strengthening the thin-walled structures is a very complex, due to inability to perform welded joints in this type of elements and the limited ability to applying mechanical fasteners. Moreover, structures made of thin-walled cross-section demonstrate a high sensitivity to imperfections and tendency to interactive buckling, which may substantially contribute to the reduction of critical load capacity. Due to the lack of commonly used and recognized modern methods of strengthening of thin-walled steel structures authors performed the experimental studies of thin-walled sigma profiles strengthened with CFRP tapes. The paper presents the experimental stand and the preliminary results of laboratory test concerning the analysis of the effectiveness of the strengthening steel beams made of thin-walled sigma profiles with CFRP tapes. The study includes six beams made of the cold-rolled sigma profiles with height of 140 mm, wall thickness of 2.5 mm and a length of 3 meters, subjected to the uniformly distributed load. Four beams have been strengthened with carbon fibre tape Sika CarboDur S, while the other two were tested without strengthening to obtain reference results. Based on the obtained results the evaluation of the accuracy of applied composite materials for strengthening of thin-walled structures was performed.
Seismic Performance of Concrete Moment Resisting Frames in Western Canada
Performance-based seismic design concepts are increasingly being adopted in various jurisdictions. While the National Building Code of Canada (NBCC) is not fully performance-based, it provides some features of a performance-based code, such as displacement control and objective-based solutions. Performance evaluation is an important part of a performance-based design. In this paper, the seismic performance of a set of code-designed 4, 8 and 12 story moment resisting concrete frames located in Victoria, BC, in the western part of Canada at different hazard levels namely, SLE (Service Level Event), DLE (Design Level Event) and MCE (Maximum Considered Event) has been studied. The seismic performance of these buildings has been evaluated based on FEMA 356 and ATC 72 procedures, and the nonlinear time history analysis. Pushover analysis has been used to investigate the different performance levels of these buildings and adjust their design based on the corresponding target displacements. Since pushover analysis ignores the higher mode effects, nonlinear dynamic time history using a set of ground motion records has been performed. Different types of ground motion records, such as crustal and subduction earthquake records have been used for the dynamic analysis to determine their effects. Results obtained from push over analysis on inter-story drift, displacement, shear and overturning moment are compared to those from the dynamic analysis.
[Keynote Speech]: Bridge Damage Detection Using Frequency Response Function
During the past decades, the bridge structures are considered very important portions of transportation networks, due to the fast urban sprawling. With the failure of bridges that under operating conditions lead to focus on updating the default bridge inspection methodology. The structures health monitoring (SHM) using the vibration response appeared as a promising method to evaluate the condition of structures. The rapid development in the sensors technology and the condition assessment techniques based on the vibration-based damage detection made the SHM an efficient and economical ways to assess the bridges. SHM is set to assess state and expects probable failures of designated bridges. In this paper, a presentation for Frequency Response function method that uses the captured vibration test information of structures to evaluate the structure condition. Furthermore, the main steps of the assessment of bridge using the vibration information are presented. The Frequency Response function method is applied to the experimental data of a full-scale bridge.
A Study on Application of Elastic Theory for Computing Flexural Stresses in Preflex Beam
This paper presents the step-by-step procedure for using the Elastic Theory to calculate the internal stresses in composite bridge girder prestressed by the Pre flexing Technology, called Prebeam in Japan and Preflex beam worldwide. Following the Prestressing Technology developed late in the 1930’s, the Preflex method of prestressing was invented early in the 1950’s by the Belgian engineer, Abraham Lipski, with assistance from Louis Baes, in Brussels. Preflex beam is a pre-cambered composite beam. Basically, it is a pre-cambered I-shaped steel plate-girder which is bent under preflexion loads using the four-points-bending method such that it becomes flat with no pre-camber left. Following that step, high strength concrete is cast on its lower flange. As the concrete hardens, the preflexion loads are removed. The beam recovers a measure of its camber while the rest of it leads to the introduction of compressive stress in the concrete. Pouring the upper flange concrete completes the construction. As far as the depth and deflection limitations are the governing requirements in the design process, preflex beam is a suitable option to meet the requirements to a large extent. When it comes to analyzing flexural members in terms of internal stresses, the Elastic Theory has been the convenient method of dealing with similar cases. Researches carried out on the serviceability of the Elastic Theory for predicting internal stresses in preflex beam have concluded that the theory can be satisfactorily used to predict the internal stresses which occur in preflex beam during the preflexion operation and during the service life of the beam. Unlike the conventional composite members, preflex beam undergoes different steps during construction; namely, preflexion, lower flange concrete casting, preflexion release, and lastly the upper flange concrete casting. Since the materials used and loading conditions vary from a step to another, stresses are calculated in every single phase under the loads in action with section properties involved in the specific case. Stress accumulation gives the present stress in a section of interest. Graphical presentation of every step is made for more details. Concrete presence in the section implies prestress loss due to creep and shrinkage; however, more work is required to be done in this field. In addition to the graphical presentation of this application, this paper further discusses important notes of graphical comparison between the results of an experimental-only research carried out on a preflex beam in 1955, with the results of simulation for an identical beam through PATRAN-NASTRAN by the author.
Application of Artificial Neural Network for Conceptual Cost Estimation of Road Projects in Ethiopia
The rapid technological changes and advances in all business sectors strongly impose construction managers to facilitate their work through advanced software applications to simplify different tasks. However, the application of conceptual cost estimation tools in Ethiopian construction industry is at an infant stage and requires domestic researches. This paper presents conceptual cost estimation model developed using artificial intelligence for federal road projects of Ethiopia. The test results of the model, which are based on the performance measures and the reports generated for sensitivity analysis are presented. In addition, a friendly user interface is built to enable the utilization of the model developed easily and is presented with an example of actual road projects in Ethiopia. Based on the conclusions drawn from the analysis, the recommendations forwarded to concerned stakeholders are presented as well. This study indicates the prospect of application of artificial neural network for cost estimation during the early phase of the project development for Ethiopian road projects. The conceptual cost estimation model developed has a mean absolute percentage error of 32.58% trained with only 48 exemplars. If the model is developed with the provision of enough data set to represent the road project with all-state of affairs, it is forecasted to improve the estimating capability of financiers, employers, and consultants.
Durability of a Cementitious Matrix Based on Treated Sediments
Significant volumes of sediment are annually dredged in France and all over the world. These materials may, in fact, be used beneficially as supplementary cementitious material. This paper studies the durability of a new cement matrix based on marine dredged sediment of Dunkirk-Harbor (north of France). Several techniques are used to characterize the raw sediment such as physical properties, chemical analyses, and mineralogy. The XRD analysis revealed quartz, calcite, kaolinite as main mineral phases. In order to eliminate organic matter and activate some of those minerals, the sediment is calcined at a temperature of 850°C for 1h. Moreover, four blended mortars were formulated by mixing a portland cement (CEM I 52,5 N) and the calcined sediment as partial cement substitute (0%, 10%, 20% and 30%). Reference mortars, based on the blended cement, were then prepared. This re-use cannot be substantiating and efficient without a durability study. In this purpose, the following tests, mercury porosity, accessible water porosity, chloride permeability, freezing and thawing, external sulfate attack, alkali aggregates reaction, compressive and bending strength tests were conducted on those mortars. The results of most of those tests evidenced the fact that the mortar that contains 10% of the treated sediment is efficient and durable as the reference mortar itself. That would infer that the presence of these calcined sediment improves mortar general behavior.
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for Environmental Decision Support of Buildings’ End-of-Life
End-of-life of a building is the phase at which a building’s useful life comes to an end, and the building needs to be cleared away. This includes dismantling, sorting, transporting, and disposing of the building’s materials. The amount of waste generated at the end-of-life phase of buildings is excessive. According to the U.S. Green Building Council 30 percent of the U.S. solid waste stream is the building-related waste, of which only 20 percent is recycled. Only 10 percent of the building-related waste is due to new construction. The remainders are due to demolition (50%) and renovation (40%). The environmental impacts of buildings’ end-of-life may be reduced by reuse and recycling of their salvaged materials. However, producing a secondary material from demolition waste needs energy, transportation, and causes emission. Life cycle assessment (LCA) must be used to compare environmental impacts of alternative end-of-life options. This paper provides life cycle assessment of various end-of-life management options to demonstrate how LCA can be used to support environmental decisions.
The Capacity of Bolted and Screw Connections in Cold-Formed Steel Truss Structure through Analytical and Experimental Method
Designing of cold-formed steel capacity connections often based on the formula used for hot rolled steel. It makes the result of the actual capacity connection doesn’t accurate anymore. When the hot rolled steel receives the axial load pull, it will have different characteristics. As the result, there will be failure result when designing Truss structure made of hot rolled steel. This research aims to determine the capacity of actual cold-formed steel connections section which is loaded by the axial tensile force. It will test the appeal of the connection using bolt grafting tool and screw grafting tool. The variations of the test will be on the type of connection (single and double slap), the number of the connection tools and connection configuration. Bold and screw connections failure mode observed in this research are different each other. Failure mode of bolted connections includes sliding pivot plate, tearing at the plate and cutting of the bolt head. While the failure mode of screw connections includes tilting, hole-bearing, pull over and cutting the screw body out. This research was conducted using a laboratory test of HW2-600S Universal Testing Machine model with ASTM E8. It has done in the materials testing laboratory of Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering UNNES. The results obtained through the laboratory diversification towards theoretical calculations using the standards specified in ISO 7971-2013 Cold-Rolled Steel Structures. Based on the research, it can be concluded that the effective connection in receiving force strength is bolted connections neither single nor double plate. The method used is by applying 4 bolts through 2 parallel lines configuration. Furthermore, this connection deals with the consequences of holding the highest Pmaks, lowest failure risk and getting a little kind of mode of failure.
Improving Inelastic Capacity of Cold-Formed Steel Beams Using Slotted Blotted Connection
The focus of this paper is to incorporating the slotted bolted connection into the cold-formed steel (CFS) beams with aim of increasing inelastic bending capacity through bolt slip. An extensive finite element analysis was conducted on the through plate CFS bolted connections which are equipped with the slotted hole. The studied parameters in this paper included the following: CFS beam section geometry, the value of slip force, CFS beam thickness. The numerical results indicate that CFS slotted bolted connection exhibit higher inelastic capacity in terms of ductility compare to connection with standards holes. Moreover, the effect of slip force was analysed by comparing the moment-rotation curves of different models with different slip force value. As a result, as the slip force became lower, there was a tendency for the plastic strain to extend from the CFS member to the connection region.
Minimum Weight Design of Cold-Formed Steel Beams According to Eurocode 3
Cold-formed steel has an advantage of great flexibility of its cross-sectional shapes and sizes that are available to the construction industry. This is one of the most desirable features of thin-walled cold-formed steel members. Furthermore, such members generally have high strength and stiffness to weight ratio. This makes cold-formed steel members economical and at the same time very easy to erect and install. In addition, cold-formed steel is very durable, easy to transport and handle, and can be easily recycled. More importantly, they could be shaped to nearly any open cross sections. This allows for the use of formal optimisation strategies to find optimum cross sectional shapes for the members. This study deals with the minimum weight design of simply supported cold-formed steel beams subjected to uniformly distributed load. The beam composed of two thin-walled cold-formed steel back-to-back lipped channel sections. The connection between the lipped channels (i.e. C sections) was assumed to be rigid. For the optimisation process, Generalised Reduced Gradient (GRG) technique was implemented which is embedded within Excel Solver add-in tool. GRG method was adopted because of its robustness and efficiency in dealing with a wide range of engineering optimisation problems as demonstrated by several works available in the literature. Equally important, the GRG is part and parcel of Microsoft Excel which means that there is no need to pay for extra licence to run any optimisation problem. The design variables were considered to be the width (b), web depth (h) and lip depth (c) of the C section. The constraint functions were based on the provision and design requirement according to Eurocode 3 (EC3). Several design parameters were taken into account, namely, the thickness (t) of the section, yield strength, load intensity and span of the beam. Results of the optimum design charts were presented for various practical cases to reflect the effect of the design parameters on the optimum section. Following a comprehensive investigation of the minimum weight design of the beam, it was concluded that the effect of yield strength on the gross area of the section is insignificant compared to the intensity of the load. On the other hand, noticeable increase of section depth, hence the gross area of the section as the beam span length increases from 5 m to 9 m.
Effect of Hooked-End Steel Fibres Geometry on Pull-Out Behaviour of Ultra-High Performance Concrete
In this study, a comprehensive approach has been adopted to examine in detail the effect of various hook geometries on bond-slip characteristics. Extensive single fibre pull-out tests on ultra-high performance matrix with three different W/B ratios and embedded lengths have been carried out. Test results showed that the mechanical deformation of fibre hook is the main mechanism governing the pull-out behaviour. Furthermore, the quantitative analyses have been completed to compare the hook design contribution of 3D, 4D and 5D fibres to assess overall pull-out behaviour. It was also revealed that there is a strong relationship between the magnitude of hook contribution and W/B ratio (i.e. matrix strength). Reducing the W/B ratio from 0.20 to 0.11 greatly optimizes the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) and enables better mobilization, straightening of the hook and results in bond-slip-hardening behaviour.
Innovation in Lean Thinking to Achieve Rapid Construction
Lean thinking holds the potential for improving the construction sector, and therefore, it is a concept that should be adopted by construction sector players and academicians in the real industry. Bridging from that, a learning process for construction sector players regarding this matter should be the agenda in gaining the knowledge in preparation for their career. Lean principles offer opportunities for reducing lead times, eliminating non-value adding activities, reducing variability, and are facilitated by methods such as pull scheduling, simplified operations and buffer reduction. Thus, the drive for rapid construction, which is a systematic approach in enhancing efficiency to deliver a project using time reduction, while lean is the continuous process of eliminating waste, meeting or exceeding all customer requirements, focusing on the entire value stream and pursuing perfection in the execution of a constructed project. The methodology presented is shown to be valid through literature, interviews and questionnaire. The results show that the majority of construction sector players unfamiliar with lean thinking and they agreed that it can improve the construction process flow. With this background knowledge established and identified, best practices and recommended action are drawn.
Pushover Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Buildings Using Full Jacket Technics: A Case Study on an Existing Old Building in Madinah
The retrofitting of existing buildings to resist the seismic loads is very important to avoid losing lives or financial disasters. The aim at retrofitting processes is increasing total structure strength by increasing stiffness or ductility ratio. In addition, the response modification factors (R) have to satisfy the code requirements for suggested retrofitting types. In this study, two types of jackets are used, i.e. full reinforced concrete jackets and surrounding steel plate jackets. The study is carried out on an existing building in Madinah by performing static pushover analysis before and after retrofitting the columns. The selected model building represents nearly all-typical structure lacks structure built before 30 years ago in Madina City, KSA. The comparison of the results indicates a good enhancement of the structure respect to the applied seismic forces. Also, the response modification factor of the RC building is evaluated for the studied cases before and after retrofitting. The design of all vertical elements (columns) is given. The results show that the design of retrofitted columns satisfied the code's design stress requirements. However, for some retrofitting types, the ductility requirements represented by response modification factor do not satisfy KSA design code (SBC- 301).
Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of Existing Unreinforced Masonry Buildings
The construction of unreinforced masonry buildings (URM) has been done based on some ‘typical’ models and prior to the seismic code in many countries. Moreover, construction and material production many depend on local practice, thus showing significant variation in workmanship, material quality, and also lacking quality control. This vague in the material properties increase concern of seismic assessment of URM buildings. This study presents a seismic assessment of a typical masonry building in Tirana one of the most populated cities in Balkans. The assessment was carried out based on actual material properties obtained from existing buildings. Elastic modulus and shear modulus of masonry units obtained from existing building material test were modified by diagonal shear test of 1.2m x 1.2m masonry unit. Specimens for diagonal shear test were constructed based on existing building material properties, and the test was carried out according to ASTM. The Equivalent Frame Method (EFM) was used for modeling of the structure, and pushover analysis was performed to obtain the buildings capacity. The study shows that a modification of shear modulus and elastic modulus by diagonal shear test is necessary to reach more accurate assessment of URM building. The assessment results of the typical masonry structure indicated the high vulnerability of these structures in the case of a strong seismic event.
The Damage Assessment of Industrial Buildings Located on Clayey Soils Using in-Situ Tests
Some of the industrially prefabricated buildings located on clayey soils were damaged due to soil conditions. The reasons of these damages are generally due to different settlement capacity, the different plasticity of soils and the level of ground water. The aim of this study is to determine the source of these building damages by conducting in situ tests. Therefore, pressuremeter test, which is one of the borehole loading test conducted to determine the properties of soils under the foundations and Standart Penetration Test (SPT). The results of these two field tests were then used to accurately obtain the consistency and firmness of soils. Pressuremeter Deformation Module (EM) and Net Limiting Pressure (PL) of soils were calculated after the pressuremeter tests. These values were then compared with the SPT (N30) and SPT (N60) results. An empirical equation was developed to obtain EM and PL values of such soils from SPT test results. These values were then used to calculate soil bearing capacity as well as the soil settlement. Finally, the relationship between the foundation settlement and the damage of these buildings were checked. It was found that calculated settlement values were almost the same as measured settlement values.
Determination of Geotechnical Properties of Travertine Lithotypes in Van-Turkey
Travertine is generally a weak or medium strong rock, and physical, mechanical and structural properties of travertines are direct impacts on geotechnical studies. New settlement areas were determined on travertine units after two destructive earthquakes which occurred on October 23rd, 2011 (M=7.1) and November 9th, 2011 (M=5.6) in Tabanlı and Edremit districts of Van province in Turkey, respectively. In the study area, the travertines have different lithotype and engineering properties such as strong crystalline crust, medium strong shrub, and weak reed which can affect mechanical and engineering properties of travertine and each level have different handicaps. Travertine has a higher strength when compared to the soil ground; however, it can have different handicaps such as having poor rock mass, karst caves and weathering alteration. Physico-mechanical properties of travertine in the study area are determined by laboratory tests and field observations. Uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) values were detected by indirect methods, and the strength map of different lithotype of Edremit travertine was created in order to define suitable settlement areas. Also, rock mass properties and underground structure were determined by bore holes, field studies, and geophysical method. The reason of this study is to investigate the relationship between lithotype and physicomechanical properties of travertines. According to the results, lithotype has an effect on physical, mechanical and rock mass properties of travertine levels. It is detected by several research methods that various handicaps may occur on such areas when the active tectonic structure of the area is evaluated along with the karstic cavities within the travertine and different lithotype qualities.
Development of Interaction Diagram for Eccentrically Loaded Reinforced Concrete Sandwich Walls with Different Design Parameters
Sandwich sections have a very complex nature due to variability of behavior of different materials within the section. Cracking, crushing and yielding capacity of constituent materials enforces high complexity of the section. Furthermore, slippage between the different layers adds to the section complex behavior. Conventional methods implemented in current industrial guidelines do not account for the above complexities. Thus, a throughout study is needed to understand the true behavior of the sandwich panels thus, increase the ability to use them effectively and efficiently. The purpose of this paper is to conduct numerical investigation using ANSYS software for the structural behavior of sandwich wall section under eccentric loading. Sandwich walls studied herein are composed of two RC faces, a foam core and linking shear connectors. Faces are modeled using solid elements and reinforcement together with connectors are modeled using link elements. The analysis conducted herein is nonlinear static analysis incorporating material nonlinearity, crashing and crushing of concrete and yielding of steel. The model is validated by comparing it to test results in literature. After validation, the model is used to establish extensive parametric analysis to investigate the effect of three key parameters on the axial force bending moment interaction diagram of the walls. These parameters are the concrete compressive strength, face thickness and number of shear connectors. Furthermore, the results of the parametric study are used to predict a coefficient that links the interaction diagram of a solid wall to that of a sandwich wall. The equation is predicted using the parametric study data and regression analysis. The predicted α was used to construct the interaction diagram of the investigated wall and the results were compared with ANSYS results and showed good agreement.
Non-Chronological Approach in Crane Girder and Composite Steel Beam installation: Case Study
The time delay and structural stability are major issues in big size projects, due to several factors. Improper planning and poor coordination lead to delay in construction, which sometimes lead to reworking or rebuilding. This definitely increases the cost and time of project. This situation stresses the structural engineers to plan out of the limits of contemporary technology utilizing non-chronological approach with creative ideas. One of the strategies to solve this issue is through structural integrity solutions in a cost-effective way. We have faced several problems in a project worth 470 million USD and one such issue is crane girder installation with composite steel beams. We have applied structural integrity approach with proper revised planning schedule to solve the problem efficiently with minimal expenses.
Simulation and Experimental Study on Tensile Force Measurement of PS Tendons Using an Embedded EM Sensor
The tensile force estimation PS tendons is in great demand on monitoring the structural health condition of PSC girder bridges. Measuring the tensile force of the PS tendons inside the PSC girder using conventional methods is hard due to its location. In this paper, an embedded EM sensor based tensile force estimation of PS tendon was carried out by measuring the permeability of the PS tendons in PSC girder. The permeability is changed due to the induced tensile force by the magneto-elastic effect and the effect then lead to the gradient change of the B-H curve. An experiment was performed to obtain the signals from the EM sensor using three down-scaled PSC girder models. The permeability of PS tendons was proportionally decreased according to the increase of the tensile forces. To verify the experiment results, a simulation of tensile force estimation will be conducted in further study. Consequently, it is expected that both the experiment results and the simulation results increase the accuracy of the tensile force estimation, and then it could be one of the solutions for evaluating the performance of PSC girder.
Visualization of Corrosion at Plate-Like Structures Based on Ultrasonic Wave Propagation Images
A non-contact nondestructive technique using laser-induced ultrasonic wave generation method was applied to visualize corrosion damage at aluminum alloy plate structures. The ultrasonic waves were generated by a Nd:YAG pulse laser, and a galvanometer-based laser scanner was used to scan specific area at a target structure. At the same time, wave responses were measured at a piezoelectric sensor which was attached on the target structure. The visualization of structural damage was achieved by calculating logarithmic values of root mean square (RMS). Damage-sensitive feature was defined as the scattering characteristics of the waves that encounter corrosion damage. The corroded damage was artificially formed by hydrochloric acid. To observe the effect of the location where the corrosion was formed, the both sides of the plate were scanned with same scanning area. Also, the effect on the depth of the corrosion was considered as well as the effect on the size of the corrosion. The results indicated that the damages were successfully visualized for almost cases, whether the damages were formed at the front or back side. However, the damage could not be clearly detected because the depth of the corrosion was shallow. In the future works, it needs to develop signal processing algorithm to more clearly visualize the damage by improving signal-to-noise ratio.
Shape Management Method of Large Structure Based on Octree Space Partitioning
The objective of the study is to construct the shape management method contributing to the safety of the large structure. In Korea, the research of the shape management is lack because of the new attempted technology. Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) is used for measurements of large structures. TLS provides an efficient way to actively acquire accurate the point clouds of object surfaces or environments. The point clouds provide a basis for rapid modeling in the industrial automation, architecture, construction or maintenance of the civil infrastructures. TLS produce a huge amount of point clouds. Registration, Extraction and Visualization of data require the processing of a massive amount of scan data. The octree can be applied to the shape management of the large structure because the scan data is reduced in the size but, the data attributes are maintained. The octree space partitioning generates the voxel of 3D space, and the voxel is recursively subdivided into eight sub-voxels. The point cloud of scan data was converted to voxel and sampled. The experimental site is located at Sungkyunkwan University. The scanned structure is the steel-frame bridge. The used TLS is Leica ScanStation C10/C5. The scan data was condensed 92%, and the octree model was constructed with 2 millimeter in resolution. This study presents octree space partitioning for handling the point clouds. The basis is created by shape management of the large structures such as double-deck tunnel, building and bridge. The research will be expected to improve the efficiency of structural health monitoring and maintenance. "This work is financially supported by 'U-City Master and Doctor Course Grant Program' and the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (NRF- 2015R1D1A1A01059291)."
Numerical Simulation and Experimental Study on Cable Damage Detection Using an MFL Technique
Non-destructive testing on cable is in great demand due to safety accidents at sites where many equipments using cables are installed. In this paper, the quantitative change of the obtained signal was analyzed using a magnetic flux leakage (MFL) method. A two-dimensional simulation was conducted with a FEM model replicating real elevator cables. The simulation data were compared for three parameters (depth of defect, width of defect and inspection velocity). Then, an experiment on same conditions was carried out to verify the results of the simulation. Signals obtained from both the simulation and the experiment were transformed to characterize the properties of the damage. Throughout the results, a cable damage detection based on an MFL method was confirmed to be feasible. In further study, it is expected that the MFL signals of an entire specimen will be gained and visualized as well.
Tensile Force Estimation for Real-Size Pre-Stressed Concrete Girder using Embedded Elasto-Magnetic Sensor
The tensile force of Pre-Stressed Concrete (PSC) girder is the most important factor for evaluating the performance of PSC girder bridges. To measure the tensile force of PSC girder, several NDT methods were studied. However, conventional NDT method cannot be applied to the real-size PSC girder because the PS tendons could not be approached. To measure the tensile force of real-size PSC girder, this study proposed embedded EM sensor based tensile force estimation method. The embedded EM sensor could be installed inside of PSC girder as a sheath joint before the concrete casting. After curing process, the PS tendons were installed, and the tensile force was induced step by step using hydraulic jacking machine. The B-H loop was measured using embedded EM sensor at each tensile force steps and to compare with actual tensile force, the load cell was installed at each end of girder. The magnetization energy loss, that is the closed area of B-H loop, was decreased according to the increase of tensile force with regular pattern. Thus, the tensile force could be estimated by the tracking the change of magnetization energy loss of PS tendons. Through the experimental result, the proposed method can be used to estimate the tensile force of the in-situ real-size PSC girder bridge.
Seismic Performance Evaluation of Structures with Hybrid Dampers Based on FEMA P-58 Methodology
In this study, a hybrid energy dissipation device is developed by combining a steel slit plate and friction pads to be used for seismic retrofit of structures, and its effectiveness is investigated by comparing the life cycle costs of the structure before and after the retrofit. The seismic energy dissipation capability of the dampers is confirmed by cyclic loading tests. The probabilities of reaching various damage states are obtained by fragility analysis, and the life cycle costs of the model structures are computed using the PACT (Performance Assessment Calculation Tool) program based on FEMA P-58 methodology. The fragility analysis shows that the probabilities of reaching limit states are minimized by the seismic retrofit with hybrid dampers and increasing column size. The seismic retrofit with increasing column size and hybrid dampers results in the lowest repair cost and shortest repair time. This research was supported by a grant (13AUDP-B066083-01) from Architecture & Urban Development Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.
A Robust Software for Advanced Analysis of Space Steel Frames
This paper presents a robust software package for practical advanced analysis of space steel framed structures. The pre- and post-processors of the presented software package are coded in the C++ programming language while the solver is written by using the FORTRAN programming language. A user-friendly graphical interface of the presented software is developed to facilitate the modeling process and result interpretation of the problem. The solver employs the stability functions for capturing the second-order effects to minimize modeling and computational time. Both the plastic-hinge and fiber-hinge beam-column elements are available in the presented software. The generalized displacement control method is adopted to solve the nonlinear equilibrium equations.
Identification of Factors Affecting Labor Productivity in Construction Projects of Iran
Labor productivity is very important and gained special concerns among professionals in the construction industry, worldwide. Productivity improvements on labors achieve higher cost savings with minimal investment. Due to the fact that profit margins are small on construction projects, cost savings associated with productivity are crucial to become a successful contractor. This research program studies and highlights the factors affecting labor productivity in Iranian construction industry. A questionnaire was used to gather the relevant data from respondents who involve in managing various types of projects in wide areas in Iran. It involved ranking 57 predefined factors divided into 5 categories: Human/Labor; Financial; Management; Equipments/Materials and Environmental. Total 62 feedbacks were analyzed through the Relative Importance Index (RII) technique. The top ten factors affecting construction labor productivity in Iran are: 1) Professional capability of contractor project manager, 2) skills of contractor’s project management team, 3) professional capability of owner project manager, 4) professional capability of Consulting Project manager, 5) discipline working, 6) delay payments by the owner, 7) material shortages, 8) delays in delivery of materials, 9) turnover power of the owner, 10) poor site management. Recommendations have been made in the study to address these factors. The research has direct benefits to key stakeholders in Iranian construction industry.
The Effect of Inlet Baffle Position in Improving the Efficiency of Oil and Water Gravity Separator Tanks
The gravitational effect has been extensively applied to separate oil from water in water and wastewater treatment systems. The maximum oil globules removal efficiency is improved by obtaining the best flow uniformity in separator tanks. This study used 2D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to investigate the effect of different inlet baffle positions inside the separator tank. Laboratory experiment has been conducted, and the measured velocity fields which were by Nortek Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) are used to verify the CFD model. Computational investigation results indicated that the construction of an inlet baffle in a suitable location provides the minimum recirculation zone volume, creates the best flow uniformity, and dissipates kinetic energy in the oil and water separator tank. Useful formulas were predicted to design the oil and water separator tanks geometry based on an experimental model.