Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 56400

Transport and Vehicle Engineering

412
103547
Discovering Causal Structure from Observations: The Relationships between Technophile Attitude, Users Value and Use Intention of Mobility Management Travel App
Abstract:
The increasing complexity and demand of transport services strains transportation systems especially in urban areas with limited possibilities for building new infrastructure. The solution to this challenge requires changes of travel behavior. One of the proposed means to induce such change is multimodal travel apps. This paper describes a study of the intention to use a real-time multi-modal travel app aimed at motivating travel behavior change in the Greater Copenhagen Region (Denmark) toward promoting sustainable transport options. The proposed app is a multi-faceted smartphone app including both travel information and persuasive strategies such as health and environmental feedback, tailoring travel options, self-monitoring, tunneling users toward green behavior, social networking, nudging and gamification elements. The prospective for mobility management travel apps to stimulate sustainable mobility rests not only on the original and proper employment of the behavior change strategies, but also on explicitly anchoring it on established theoretical constructs from behavioral theories. The theoretical foundation is important because it positively and significantly influences the effectiveness of the system. However, there is a gap in current knowledge regarding the study of mobility-management travel app with support in behavioral theories, which should be explored further. This study addresses this gap by a social cognitive theory‐based examination. However, compare to conventional method in technology adoption research, this study adopts a reverse approach in which the associations between theoretical constructs are explored by Max-Min Hill-Climbing (MMHC) algorithm as a hybrid causal discovery method. A technology-use preference survey was designed to collect data. The survey elicited different groups of variables including (1) three groups of user’s motives for using the app including gain motives (e.g., saving travel time and cost), hedonic motives (e.g., enjoyment) and normative motives (e.g., less travel-related CO2 production), (2) technology-related self-concepts (i.e. technophile attitude) and (3) use Intention of the travel app. The questionnaire items led to the formulation of causal relationships discovery to learn the causal structure of the data. Causal relationships discovery from observational data is a critical challenge and it has applications in different research fields. The estimated causal structure shows that the two constructs of gain motives and technophilia have a causal effect on adoption intention. Likewise, there is a causal relationship from technophilia to both gain and hedonic motives. In line with the findings of the prior studies, it highlights the importance of functional value of the travel app as well as technology self-concept as two important variables for adoption intention. Furthermore, the results indicate the effect of technophile attitude on developing gain and hedonic motives. The causal structure shows hierarchical associations between the three groups of user’s motive. They can be explained by “frustration-regression” principle according to Alderfer's ERG (Existence, Relatedness and Growth) theory of needs meaning that a higher level need remains unfulfilled, a person may regress to lower level needs that appear easier to satisfy. To conclude, this study shows the capability of causal discovery methods to learn the causal structure of theoretical model, and accordingly interpret established associations.
411
102266
Evaluating the Influence of Road Markings Retroreflectivity on Road Safety in Low Visibility Conditions
Abstract:
For road markings as a part of traffic control plan, it is considered to have a positive impact on road safety. Their importance is particularly evident in low visibility conditions when the field of vision and the driver's visual acuity are significantly reduced. The aim of this article is to analyze how road marking retroreflectivity affects the frequency of traffic accidents in low visibility conditions. For this purpose, 10,417.4 km single carriageway roads were analysed across Croatia in the period from 2012 to 2016. The research included accidents that may be significantly affected by marking retroreflectivity: head-on collisions, running off the road, hitting a stationary object on the road and hitting a stationary roadside object. The results have shown that the retroreflectivity level is negatively correlated to the total number of accidents and the number of casualties and injuries, which ultimately means that the risk of traffic accidents and deaths and/or injuries of participants will be lower with the increase of road markings retroreflectivity. These results may assist in defining minimum values of retroreflectivity that the markings must meet at any time as well as the suitable technologies and materials for their implementation.
410
100639
Impact of Intelligent Transportation System on Planning, Operation and Safety of Urban Corridor
Abstract:
Intelligent transportation system (ITS) is the application of technologies for developing a user–friendly transportation system to extend the safety and efficiency of urban transportation systems in developing countries. These systems involve vehicles, drivers, passengers, road operators, managers of transport services; all interacting with each other and the surroundings to boost the security and capacity of road systems. The goal of urban corridor management using ITS in road transport is to achieve improvements in mobility, safety, and the productivity of the transportation system within the available facilities through the integrated application of advanced monitoring, communications, computer, display, and control process technologies, both in the vehicle and on the road. Intelligent transportation system is a product of the revolution in information and communications technologies that is the hallmark of the digital age. The basic ITS technology is oriented on three main directions: communications, information, integration. Information acquisition (collection), processing, integration, and sorting are the basic activities of ITS. In the paper, attempts have been made to present the endeavor that was made to interpret and evaluate the performance of the 27.4 Km long study corridor having eight intersections and four flyovers. The corridor consisting of six lanes as well as eight lanes divided road network. Two categories of data have been collected such as traffic data (traffic volume, spot speed, delay) and road characteristics data (no. of lanes, lane width, bus stops, mid-block sections, intersections, flyovers). The instruments used for collecting the data were video camera, stop watch, radar gun, and mobile GPS (GPS tracker lite). From the analysis, the performance interpretations incorporated were the identification of peak and off-peak hours, congestion and level of service (LOS) at midblock sections and delay followed by plotting the speed contours. The paper proposed the urban corridor management strategies based on sensors integrated into both vehicles and on the roads that those have to be efficiently executable, cost-effective, and familiar to road users. It will be useful to reduce congestion, fuel consumption, and pollution so as to provide comfort, safety, and efficiency to the users.
409
100306
Current Situation of Maritime Transport and Logistics in Myanmar
Abstract:
Maritime transport is a major transportation mode of international trade. In the Republic of the Union of Myanmar (Burma), water transportation served as one of the most important modes of transport for country's exports and imports as well. Getting the accurate information and data-gathering activity are the most important aspects for any study field. To author’s best knowledge, there are a few papers available for scholars to study on the theoretical aspects of the development of Myanmar’s ports and maritime industry. Therefore, in this research, a historical review of the development of ports in Myanmar and how they have changed had been carried out. All the relevant literature and documents also have been reviewed, studied, and organized. The sources of collected data are from reports, journals, internet, as well as from the publications of authorized organizations and international associations. To get better understanding about real situation of maritime transport and logistics in Myanmar; current condition of existing ports, expansion and on-going projects, and future port development plans are described successively. Hence, the main purpose of this study is to build up a comprehensive picture of maritime transport and logistics, in addition to border trade within ASEAN and Myanmar. It will help for academic researchers, decision makers, and stakeholders for national planning as well as for the local and foreign investors to recognize current situation of maritime transport and logistics in Myanmar.
408
99577
Data Recording for Remote Monitoring of Autonomous Vehicles
Abstract:
Autonomous vehicles offer the possibility of significant benefits to social welfare. However, fully automated cars might not be going to happen in the near further. To speed the adoption of the self-driving technologies, many governments worldwide are passing laws requiring data recorders for the testing of autonomous vehicles. Currently, the self-driving vehicle, (e.g., shuttle bus) has to be monitored from a remote control center. When an autonomous vehicle encounters an unexpected driving environment, such as road construction or an obstruction, it should request assistance from a remote operator. Nevertheless, large amounts of data, including images, radar and lidar data, etc., have to be transmitted from the vehicle to the remote center. Therefore, this paper proposes a data compression method of in-vehicle networks for remote monitoring of autonomous vehicles. Firstly, the time-series data are rearranged into a multi-dimensional signal space. Upon the arrival, for controller area networks (CAN), the new data are mapped onto a time-data two-dimensional space associated with the specific CAN identity. Secondly, the data are sampled based on differential sampling. Finally, the whole set of data are encoded using existing algorithms such as Huffman, arithmetic and codebook encoding methods. To evaluate system performance, the proposed method was deployed on an in-house built autonomous vehicle. The testing results show that the amount of data can be reduced as much as 1/7 compared to the raw data.
407
99212
Estimation of Delay Due to Loading–Unloading of Passengers by Buses and Reduction of Number of Lanes at Selected Intersections in Dhaka City
Abstract:
One of the significant reasons that increase the delay time in the intersections at heterogeneous traffic condition is a sudden reduction of the capacity of the roads. In this study, the delay for this sudden capacity reduction is estimated. Two intersections at Dhaka city were brought in to thestudy, i.e., Kakrail intersection, and SAARC Foara intersection. At Kakrail intersection, the sudden reduction of capacity in the roads is seen at three downstream legs of the intersection, which are because of slowing down or stopping of buses for loading and unloading of passengers. At SAARC Foara intersection, sudden reduction of capacity was seen at two downstream legs. At one leg, it was due to loading and unloading of buses, and at another leg, it was for both loading and unloading of buses and reduction of the number of lanes. With these considerations, the delay due to intentional stoppage or slowing down of buses and reduction of the number of lanes for these two intersections are estimated. Here the delay was calculated by two approaches. The first approach came from the concept of shock waves in traffic streams. Here the delay was calculated by determining the flow, density, and speed before and after the sudden capacity reduction. The second approach came from the deterministic analysis of queues. Here the delay is calculated by determining the volume, capacity and reduced capacity of the road. After determining the delay from these two approaches, the results were compared. For this study, the video of each of the two intersections was recorded for one hour at the evening peak. Necessary geometric data were also taken to determine speed, flow, and density, etc. parameters. The delay was calculated for one hour with one-hour data at both intersections. In case of Kakrail intersection, the per hour delay for Kakrail circle leg was 5.79, and 7.15 minutes, for Shantinagar cross intersection leg they were 13.02 and 15.65 minutes, and for Paltan T intersection leg, they were 3 and 1.3 minutes for 1st and 2nd approaches respectively. In the case of SAARC Foara intersection, the delay at Shahbag leg was only due to intentional stopping or slowing down of busses, which were 3.2 and 3 minutes respectively for both approaches. For the Karwan Bazar leg, the delays for buses by both approaches were 5 and 7.5 minutes respectively, and for reduction of the number of lanes, the delays for both approaches were 2 and 1.78 minutes respectively. Measuring the delay per hour for the Kakrail leg at Kakrail circle, it is seen that, with consideration of the first approach of delay estimation, the intentional stoppage and lowering of speed by buses contribute to 26.24% of total delay at Kakrail circle. If the loading and unloading of buses at intersection is made forbidden near intersection, and any other measures for loading and unloading of passengers are established far enough from the intersections, then the delay at intersections can be reduced at significant scale, and the performance of the intersections can be enhanced.
406
99206
Pedestrian Behavioral Analysis for Safety at Road Crossing at Selected Intersections in Dhaka City
Authors:
Abstract:
A clear understanding of pedestrian behaviour at road crossing at intersections is needed for providing necessary infrastructure and also for enhancing pedestrian safety at any intersection. Pedestrian road crossing behaviour is studied at Motijheel and Kakrail intersections where Motijheel intersection is a controlled roundabout, and Kakrail intersection is a signalized intersection. Around 60 people at each intersection were interviewed for a questionnaire survey and video recording at different time of a day was done for observation at each intersection. In case of Motijeel intersection, we got pedestrian road crossings were much higher than Kakrail intersection. It is because the number of workplaces here is higher than Kakrail. From questionnaire survey, it is found that 80% of pedestrians crosses at intersection to avail buses and their loading and unloading locations are at intersection, whereas at Kakrail intersection only 25% pedestrian crosses the road for buses as buses do not slow down here. At Motijheel intersection 25 to 40% of pedestrians choose to jump over the barricade for crossing instead of using overbridge for saving time and labour. On the other hand, the pedestrians using overbridge told that they use overbridge for safety. Moreover, pedestrian crosses at the same pace for both red and green interval with vehicle movement in the range of 12.5 to 14.5 km/h and gaps between vehicle were more than 4 m. Here pedestrian crossing speed varies from 3.5 to 7.2 km/h. In Kakrail intersection the road crossing situation can be classified into 4 categories. In case of red time, pedestrians do not wait to cross the road, and crossing speed varies from 3.5 to 7.2 km/h. When vehicle speed varies from 5.4 to 7.4 km/h, and gaps between vehicle vary from 1.5 to 2 m, most of the pedestrians initially choose to wait and try to cross the road in group with crossing speed 2.7 to 3.5 km/h. When vehicle speed varies from 10.8 to 18 km/h, and gaps between vehicles varies from 2 to 3 m most of the people waits and cross the road in group with crossing speed 3.5 to 5.4 km/h. When vehicle speed varies from 25.2 to 32.4 km/h and gaps between vehicles vary from 4 to 6 m most of the pedestrians choose to wait until red time. In Kakrail intersection 87% of people said that they cross the road with risk and 60% of pedestrians told that it is risky to get on and off the bus at this intersection. Planned location of loading and unloading area for buses can improve the pedestrian road crossing behaviour at intersections.
405
98810
Effect of Nano-Alumina on the Mechanical Properties of Cold Recycled Asphalt
Abstract:
In order to reduce road building costs and reduce environmental damage, recycled materials can be used instead of mineral materials in the production of asphalt mixtures. Today, in most parts of the world, cold recycled asphalt with bitumen emulsion, has acceptable results. However, Cold Recycled Asphalt have some deficiency such as stripping, thermal cracking, and rutting. This requires the addition of additives to reduce this deficiency of recycled pavement with emulsified asphalt. In this research, nano-alumina and emulsified asphalt were used to modify the properties of recycled asphalt mixtures according to the technical specifications and the operation of cold recycling. Marshall test methods, dynamic creep test, and resiliency modulus test has been used to obtain the nano-alumina’s effects on asphalt mixture properties. The results show that the addition of nano-alumina would reduce the Marshall stability in samples but increases the rutting resistance. The resiliency modulus increases significantly with this additive.
404
98329
Modelling the Effect of Physical Environment Factors on Child Pedestrian Severity Collisions in Malaysia: A Multinomial Logistic Regression Analysis
Abstract:
Children are at the greater risk to be involved in road traffic collisions due to the complex interaction of various elements in our transportation system. It encompasses interactions between the elements of children and driver behavior along with physical and social environment factors. The present study examined the effect between the collisions severity and physical environment factors on child pedestrian collisions. The severity of collisions is categorized into four injury outcomes: fatal, serious injury, slight injury, and damage. The sample size comprised of 2487 cases of child pedestrian-vehicle collisions in which children aged 7 to 12 years old was involved in Malaysia for the years 2006-2015. A multinomial logistic regression was applied to establish the effect between severity levels and physical environment factors. The results showed that eight contributing factors influence the probability of an injury road surface material, traffic system, road marking, control type, lighting condition, type of location, land use and road surface condition. Understanding the effect of physical environment factors may contribute to the improvement of physical environment design and decrease the collision involvement.
403
98254
Discussion on the Impact and Improvement Strategy of Bike Sharing on Urban Space
Abstract:
Over the past two years, a new generation of No-Pile Bike sharing, represented by the Ofo, Mobike and HelloBike, has sprung up in various cities in China, and spread rapidly in countries such as Britain, Japan, the United States and Singapore. As a new green public transportation mode, bike sharing can bring a series of benefits to urban space. At first, this paper analyzes the specific impact of bike sharing on urban space in China. Based on the market research and data analyzing, it is found that bike sharing can improve the quality of urban space in three aspects: expanding the radius of public transportation service, filling service blind spots, alleviating urban traffic congestion, and enhancing the vitality of urban space. On the other hand, due to the immature market and the imperfect system, bike sharing has gradually revealed some difficulties, such as parking chaos, malicious damage, safety problems, imbalance between supply and demand, and so on. Then the paper investigates the characteristics of shared bikes, business model, operating mechanism on Chinese market currently. Finally, in order to make bike sharing serve urban construction better, this paper puts forward some specific countermeasures from four aspects. In terms of market operations, it is necessary to establish a public-private partnership model and set up a unified bike-sharing integrated management platform. From technical methods level, the paper proposes to develop an intelligent parking system for regulating parking. From policy formulation level, establishing a bike-sharing assessment mechanism would strengthen supervision. As to urban planning, sharing data and redesigning slow roadway is beneficial for transportation and spatial planning.
402
98140
Effects of Non-Motorized Vehicles on a Selected Intersection in Dhaka City for Non Lane Based Heterogeneous Traffic Using VISSIM 5.3
Abstract:
Heterogeneous traffic composed of both motorized and non-motorized vehicles that are a common feature of urban Bangladeshi roads. Popular non-motorized vehicles include rickshaws, rickshaw-van, and bicycle. These modes performed an important role in moving people and goods in the absence of a dependable mass transport system. However, rickshaws play a major role in meeting the demand for door-to-door public transport services to the city dwellers. But there is no separate lane for non-motorized vehicles in this city. Non-motorized vehicles generally occupy the outermost or curb-side lanes, however, at intersections non-motorized vehicles get mixed with the motorized vehicles. That’s why the conventional models fail to analyze the situation completely. Microscopic traffic simulation software VISSIM 5.3, itself a lane base software but default behavioral parameters [such as driving behavior, lateral distances, overtaking tendency, CCO=0.4m, CC1=1.5s] are modified for calibrating a model to analyze the effects of non-motorized traffic at an intersection (Mirpur-10) in a non-lane based mixed traffic condition. It is seen from field data that NMV occupies an average 20% of the total number of vehicles almost all the link roads. Due to the large share of non-motorized vehicles, capacity significantly drop. After analyzing simulation raw data, significant variation is noticed. Such as the average vehicular speed is reduced by 25% and the number of vehicles decreased by 30% only for the presence of NMV. Also the variation of lateral occupancy and queue delay time increase by 2.37% and 33.75% respectively. Thus results clearly show the negative effects of non-motorized vehicles on capacity at an intersection. So special management technics or restriction of NMV at major intersections may be an effective solution to improve this existing critical condition.
401
97902
Structural Evaluation of Airfield Pavement Using Finite Element Analysis Based Methodology
Authors:
Abstract:
Nondestructive deflection testing has been accepted widely as a cost-effective tool for evaluating the structural condition of airfield pavements. Backcalculation of pavement layer moduli can be used to characterize the pavement existing condition in order to compute the load bearing capacity of pavement. This paper presents an improved best-fit backcalculation methodology based on deflection predictions obtained using finite element method (FEM). The best-fit approach is based on minimizing the squared error between falling weight deflectometer (FWD) measured deflections and FEM predicted deflections. Then, concrete elastic modulus and modulus of subgrade reaction were back-calculated using Heavy Weight Deflectometer (HWD) deflections collected at the National Airport Pavement Testing Facility (NAPTF) test site. It is an alternative and more versatile method in considering concrete slab geometry and HWD testing locations compared to methods currently available.
400
97573
Effect of Steel Slag on Cold Bituminous Emulsion Mix
Abstract:
Cold bituminous emulsion mixes (CBEM) are preferred due to their low cost for the construction of low volume roads in India. Due to the low strength of CBEM’s, the strength is generally increased by the addition of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and hydrated lime. To improve the performance of CBEM’s, the use of industrial waste material is also an alternative. Steel slag is by product of steel industry which is sustainable construction material. Due to limited modes of practice of utilization steel slag, huge amount of steel slag dumped in yards of each steel industry and engaging of important agricultural land and gave pollution to whole environment. The effective use of steel slag as additives in CBEM’s has ultimate benefits such improvement in strength of CBEM’s, waste disposal steel slag, saving natural aggregate and lowering cost of roadways. Studies carried out in the past have shown a significant improvement in the strength of CBEM’s prepared with the replacement of natural aggregate with industrial waste materials such as fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag. In this study, effect of modified mix which is mixes prepared with steel slag compared with the control mix and the mixes prepared with OPC. Experimental work was carried out on the sample of control mix, OPC mix, and modified mix. For modified mix, aggregate was replaced with steel slag by 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of weight of aggregate of same size as of steel slag in aggregate gradation. For OPC mix, filler was replaced by 1%, 2% and 3% of weight of total aggregate with OPC. Optimum emulsion content of each mix obtained by using Marshall stability test and comparison of stability values were carried out. Marshall stability, indirect tensile strength test, and retained stability tests are performed on control mixes, OPC mixes and modified mixes. Significant improvement in Marshall stability retained stability and indirect tensile strength of modified mix compared to control mix and OPC mix.
399
97167
A Systematic Categorization of Arguments against the Vision Zero Goal: A Literature Review
Abstract:
The Vision Zero is a long-term goal of preventing all road traffic fatalities and serious injuries which was first adopted in Sweden in 1997. It is based on the assumption that death and serious injury in the road system is morally unacceptable. In order to approach this end, vision zero has put in place strategies that are radically different from the traditional safety work. The vision zero, for instance, promoted the adoption of the best available technology to promote safety, and placed the ultimate responsibility for traffic safety on system designers. Despite Vision Zero’s moral appeal and its expansion to different safety areas and also parts of the world, important philosophical concerns related to the adoption and implementation of the vision zero remain to be addressed. Moreover, the vision zero goal has been criticized on different grounds. The aim of this paper is to identify and systematically categorize criticisms that have been put forward against vision zero. The findings of the paper are solely based on a critical analysis of secondary sources and snowball method is employed to identify the relevant philosophical and empirical literatures. Two general categories of criticisms on the vision zero goal are identified. The first category consists of criticisms that target the setting of vision zero as a ‘goal’ and some of the basic assumptions upon which the goal is based. Among others, the goal of achieving zero fatalities and serious injuries, together with vision zero’s lexicographical prioritization of safety has been criticized as unrealistic. The second category consists of criticisms that target the strategies put in place to achieve the goal of zero fatalities and serious injuries. For instance, Vision zero’s responsibility ascription for road safety and its rejection of cost-benefit analysis in the formulation and adoption of safety measures has both been criticized as counterproductive. In this category also falls the criticism that Vision Zero safety measures tend to be too paternalistic. Significant improvements have been recorded in road safety work since the adoption of vision zero, however, for the vision zero to even succeed more, it is important that issues and criticisms of philosophical nature associated with it are identified and critically dealt with.
398
96875
Understanding the Factors That Enable Logistics Integration in the ‎Port Sector: Evidence from Iranian Seaport Sector
Abstract:
The main purpose of this research is to propose a conceptual framework to analyze port logistics integration in general and for the Iranian port sector in particular, including consideration of the challenges, outcomes, and opportunities in implementing port logistics integration. First, a literature review of studies on logistics integration in seaports and terminals is conducted. Second, a new conceptual framework for port logistics integration is proposed to incorporate the role of the new variables emerging from the recent developments in the global business environment. The literature review has found the logistics process and operations, information integration, value-added services, and logistics practices, organizational activities, resource sharing and institutional support being influential to logistics integration. The study used survey method to test the proposed conceptual framework. Both online and self-administrative survey have been used to collect data from ‎port official staffs in Iranian seaports and their associations (internal port ‎stakeholders) as well ‎as other experts in various actors. In the study, the questionnaire was first validated using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and then by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The results of the EFA and CFA confirmed the finding from the literature review. Research results and conceptual framework shed the lights on port logistics integration concept and suggest guidelines and procedures improve port logistics integration.
397
96353
Toward the Decarbonisation of EU Transport Sector: Impacts and Challenges of the Diffusion of Electric Vehicles
Abstract:
In order to achieve the targeted emission reductions for the decarbonisation of the European economy by 2050, fundamental contributions are required from both energy and transport sectors. The objective of this paper is to analyse the impacts of a largescale diffusion of e-vehicles, either battery-based or fuel cells, together with the implementation of transport policies aiming at decreasing the use of motorised private modes in order to achieve greenhouse gas emission reduction goals, in the context of a future high share of renewable energy. The analysis of the impacts and challenges of future scenarios on transport sector is performed with the ASTRA (ASsessment of TRAnsport Strategies) model. ASTRA is a strategic system-dynamic model at European scale (EU28 countries, Switzerland and Norway), consisting of different sub-modules related to specific aspects: the transport system (e.g. passenger trips, tonnes moved), the vehicle fleet (composition and evolution of technologies), the demographic system, the economic system, the environmental system (energy consumption, emissions). A key feature of ASTRA is that the modules are linked together: changes in one system are transmitted to other systems and can feed-back to the original source of variation. Thanks to its multidimensional structure, ASTRA is capable to simulate a wide range of impacts stemming from the application of transport policy measures: the model addresses direct impacts as well as second-level and third-level impacts. The simulation of the different scenarios is performed within the REFLEX project, where the ASTRA model is employed in combination with several energy models in a comprehensive Modelling System. From the transport sector perspective, some of the impacts are driven by the trend of electricity price estimated from the energy modelling system. Nevertheless, the major drivers to a low carbon transport sector are policies related to increased fuel efficiency of conventional drivetrain technologies, improvement of demand management (e.g. increase of public transport and car sharing services/usage) and diffusion of environmentally friendly vehicles (e.g. electric vehicles). The final modelling results of the REFLEX project will be available from October 2018. The analysis of the impacts and challenges of future scenarios is performed in terms of transport, environmental and social indicators. The diffusion of e-vehicles produces a consistent reduction of future greenhouse gas emissions, although the decarbonisation target can be achieved only with the contribution of complementary transport policies on demand management and supporting the deployment of low-emission alternative energy for non-road transport modes. The paper explores the implications through time of transport policy measures on mobility and environment, underlying to what extent they can contribute to a decarbonisation of the transport sector. Acknowledgements: The results refer to the REFLEX project which has received grants from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under Grant Agreement No. 691685.
396
96160
Road Systems as Environmental Barriers: An Overview of Roadways in Their Function as Fences for Wildlife Movement
Abstract:
Roadways have a significant impact on the environment in so far as they function as barriers to wildlife movement, both through road mortality and through resultant road avoidance. Roads have an im-mense presence worldwide, and it is predicted to increase substantially in the next thirty years. As roadways become even more common, it is important to consider their environmental impact, and to mitigate the negative effects which they have on wildlife and wildlife mobility. In a thorough analysis of several related studies, a common conclusion was that roads cause habitat fragmentation, which can lead split populations to evolve differently, for better or for worse. Though some populations adapted positively to roadways, becoming more resistant to road mortality, and more tolerant to noise and chemical contamination, many others experienced maladaptation, either due to chemical contamination in and around their environment, or because of genetic mutations from inbreeding when their population was fragmented too substantially to support a large enough group for healthy genetic exchange. Large mammals were especially susceptible to maladaptation from inbreed-ing, as they require larger areas to roam and therefore require even more space to sustain a healthy population. Regardless of whether a species evolved positively or negatively as a result of their proximity to a road, animals tended to avoid roads, making the genetic diversity from habitat fragmentation an exceedingly prevalent issue in the larger discussion of road ecology. Additionally, the consideration of solu-tions, such as overpasses and underpasses, is crucial to ensuring the long term survival of many wildlife populations. In studies addressing the effectiveness of overpasses and underpasses, it seemed as though animals adjusted well to these sorts of solutions, but strategic place-ment, as well as proper sizing, proper height, shelter from road noise, and other considerations were important in construction. When an underpass or overpass was well-built and well-shielded from human activity, animals’ usage of the structure increased significantly throughout its first five years, thus reconnecting previously divided populations. Still, these structures are costly and they are often unable to fully address certain issues such as light, noise, and contaminants from vehicles. Therefore, the need for further discussion of new, crea-tive solutions remains paramount. Roads are one of the most consistent and prominent features of today’s landscape, but their environmental impacts are largely overlooked. While roads are useful for connecting people, they divide landscapes and animal habitats. Therefore, further research and investment in possible solutions is necessary to mitigate the negative effects which roads have on wildlife mobility and to pre-vent issues from resultant habitat fragmentation.
395
95990
Microscopic Simulation of Toll Plaza Safety and Operations
Abstract:
The use of microscopic traffic simulation in evaluating the operational and safety conditions at toll plazas is demonstrated. Two toll plazas in New Jersey are selected as case studies and were developed and validated in Paramics traffic simulation software. In order to simulate drivers’ lane selection behavior in Paramics, a utility-based lane selection approach is implemented in Paramics Application Programming Interface (API). For each vehicle approaching the toll plaza, a utility value is assigned to each toll lane by taking into account the factors that are likely to impact drivers’ lane selection behavior, such as approach lane, exit lane and queue lengths. The results demonstrate that similar operational conditions, such as lane-by-lane toll plaza traffic volume can be attained using this approach. In addition, assessment of safety at toll plazas is conducted via a surrogate safety measure. In particular, the crash index (CI), an improved surrogate measure of time-to-collision (TTC), which reflects the severity of a crash is used in the simulation analyses. The results indicate that the spatial and temporal frequency of observed crashes can be simulated using the proposed methodology. Further analyses can be conducted to evaluate and compare various different operational decisions and safety measures using microscopic simulation models.
394
95926
Development of K-Factor for Road Geometric Design: A Case Study of North Coast Road in Java
Abstract:
On the one hand, parameters which are used for determining the number of lane on the new road construction are average annual average daily traffic (AADT) and peak hour factor (K-factor). On the other hand, the value of K-factor listed in the guidelines and manual for road planning in Indonesia is a value of adoption or adaptation from foreign guidelines or manuals. Thus, the value is less suitable for Indonesian condition due to differences in road conditions, vehicle type, and driving behavior. The purpose of this study is to provide an example on how to determine k-factor values at a road segment with particular conditions in north coast road, West Java. The methodology is started with collecting traffic volume data for 24 hours over 365 days using PLATO (Automated Traffic Counter) with the approach of video image processing. Then, the traffic volume data is divided into per hour and analyzed by comparing the peak traffic volume in the 30th hour (or other) with the AADT in the same year. The analysis has resulted that for the 30th peak hour the K-factor is 0.97. This value can be used for planning road geometry or evaluating the road capacity performance for the 4/2D interurban road.
393
95629
Subway Ridership Estimation at a Station-Level: Focus on the Impact of Bus Demand, Commercial Business Characteristics and Network Topology
Abstract:
The primary purpose of this study is to develop a methodological framework to predict daily subway ridership at a station-level and to examine the association between subway ridership and bus demand incorporating commercial business facility in the vicinity of each subway station. The socio-economic characteristics, land-use, and built environment as factors may have an impact on subway ridership. However, it should be considered not only the endogenous relationship between bus and subway demand but also the characteristics of commercial business within a subway station’s sphere of influence, and integrated transit network topology. Regarding a statistical approach to estimate subway ridership at a station level, therefore it should be considered endogeneity and heteroscedastic issues which might have in the subway ridership prediction model. This study focused on both discovering the impacts of bus demand, commercial business characteristics, and network topology on subway ridership and developing more precise subway ridership estimation accounting for its statistical bias. The spatial scope of the study covers entire Seoul city in South Korea and includes 243 stations with the temporal scope set at twenty-four hours with one-hour interval time panels each. The data for subway and bus ridership was collected Seoul Smart Card data from 2015 and 2016. Three-Stage Least Square(3SLS) approach was applied to develop daily subway ridership model as capturing the endogeneity and heteroscedasticity between bus and subway demand. Independent variables incorporating in the modeling process were commercial business characteristics, social-economic characteristics, safety index, transit facility attributes, and dummies for seasons and time zone. As a result, it was found that bus ridership and subway ridership were endogenous each other and they had a significantly positive sign of coefficients which means one transit mode could increase another transportation mode’s ridership. In other words, two transit modes of subway and bus have a mutual relationship instead of the competitive relationship. The commercial business characteristics are the most critical dimension among the independent variables. The variables of commercial business facility rate in the paper containing six types; medical, educational, recreational, financial, food service, and shopping. From the model result, a higher rate in medical, financial buildings, shopping, and food service facility lead to increment of subway ridership at a station, while recreational and educational facility shows lower subway ridership. The complex network theory was applied for estimating integrated network topology measures that cover the entire Seoul transit network system, and a framework for seeking an impact on subway ridership. The centrality measures were found to be significant and showed a positive sign indicating higher centrality led to more subway ridership at a station level. The results of model accuracy tests by out of samples provided that 3SLS model has less mean square error rather than OLS and showed the methodological approach for the 3SLS model was plausible to estimate more accurate subway ridership. Acknowledgement: This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT (2017R1C1B2010175).
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94642
The Analysis of Increment of Road Traffic Accidents in Libya: Case Study City of Tripoli
Abstract:
Safety is an important consideration in the design and operation of streets and highways. Traffic and highway engineers working with law enforcement officials are constantly seeking for better methods to ensure safety for motorists and pedestrians. Also, a highway safety improvement process involves planning, implementation, and evaluation. The planning process requires that engineers collect and maintain traffic safety data, identify the hazards location, conduct studies and establish project priorities. Unfortunately, in Libya, the increase in demand for private transportation in recent years, due to poor or lack of public transportation led to some traffic problems especially in the capital (Tripoli). Also, the growth of private transportation has significant influences on the society regarding road traffic accidents (RTAs). This study investigates the most critical factors affect RTAs in Tripoli the capital city of Libya. Four main classifications were chosen to build the questionnaire, namely; human factors, road factors, vehicle factors and environmental factors. Moreover, a quantitative method was used to collect the data from the field, the targeted sample size 400 respondents include; drivers, pedestrian and passengers and relative importance index (RII) were used to rank the factors of one group and between all groups. The results show that the human factors have the most significant impacts compared with other factors. Also, 84% of respondents considered the over speeding as the most significant factor cusses of RTAs while 81% considered the disobedience to driving regulations as the second most influential factor in human factors. Also, the results showed that poor brakes or brake failure factor a great impact on the RTAs among the vehicle factors with nearly 74%, while 79% categorized poor or no street lighting factor as one of the most effective factors on RTAs in road factors and third effecting factor concerning all factors. The environmental factors have the slights influences compared with other factors.
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94546
Evaluating Accessibility to Bangkok Mass Transit System: Case Study of Saphan Taksin BTS Station
Abstract:
Access to the mass transit system, including rapid elevated and underground transport has become an outstanding issue for many cities. The mass transit access development should focus on behavioral responses of the different passenger groups. Moreover, it should consider about the appearance of intent-oriented action related accessibility that was explored from user’s satisfaction and attitudes related to services quality. This study aims to evaluate mass transit accessibility from passenger’s satisfaction, therefore, understanding the passenger’s attitudes about mass transit accessibility. The study area of this research is Bangkok Mass Transit system (BTS Skytrain) at Saphan Taksin station. 200 passengers at Saphan Taksin station were asked to rate the questionnaires survey that considers accessibility aspects of convenience, safety, feeder connectivity, and other dimensions. The survey was to find out the passenger attitudes and satisfaction for access to the BTS station, and the result shows several factors that influence the passenger choice of using the BTS as a public transportation mode and passenger’s opinion that needs to concern for the development mass transit system and accessibility performance.
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94151
Active Linear Quadratic Gaussian Secondary Suspension Control of Flexible Bodied Railway Vehicle
Abstract:
Passenger comfort has been paramount in the design of suspension systems of high speed cars. To analyze the effect of vibration on vehicle ride quality, a vertical model of a six degree of freedom railway passenger vehicle, with front and rear suspension, is built. It includes car body flexible effects and vertical rigid modes. A second order linear shaping filter is constructed to model Gaussian white noise into random rail excitation. The temporal correlation between the front and rear wheels is given by a second order Pade approximation. The complete track and the vehicle model are then designed. An active secondary suspension system based on a Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) optimal control method is designed. The results show that the LQG control method reduces the vertical acceleration, pitching acceleration and vertical bending vibration of the car body as compared to the passive system.
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93195
Understanding the Role of Social Entrepreneurship in Building Mobility of a Service Transportation Models
Abstract:
Introduction: The way we travel is rapidly changing, car ownership and use are declining among young people and those residents in urban areas. Also, the increasing role and popularity of sharing economy companies like Uber highlight a movement towards consuming transportation solutions as a service [Mobility of a Service]. This research looks to bridge the knowledge gap that exists between city mobility, smart cities, sharing economy and social entrepreneurship business models. Understanding of this subject is crucial for smart city design, as access to affordable transport has been identified as a contributing factor to social isolation leading to issues around health and wellbeing. Methodology: To explore the current fit vis-a-vis transportation business models and social impact this research undertook a comparative analysis between a systematic literature review and a Delphi study. The systematic literature review was undertaken to gain an appreciation of the current academic thinking on ‘social entrepreneurship and smart city mobility’. The second phase of the research initiated a Delphi study across a group of 22 participants to review future opinion on ‘how social entrepreneurship can assist city mobility sharing models?’. The Delphi delivered an initial 220 results, which once cross-checked for duplication resulted in 130. These 130 answers were sent back to participants to score importance against a 5-point LIKERT scale, enabling a top 10 listing of areas for shared user transports in society to be gleaned. One further round (4) identified no change in the coefficient of variant thus no further rounds were required. Findings: Initial results of the literature review returned 1,021 journals using the search criteria ‘social entrepreneurship and smart city mobility’. Filtering allied to ‘peer review’, ‘date’, ‘region’ and ‘Chartered associated of business school’ ranking proffered a resultant journal list of 75. Of these, 58 focused on smart city design, 9 on social enterprise in cityscapes, 6 relating to smart city network design and 3 on social impact, with no journals purporting the need for social entrepreneurship to be allied to city mobility. The future inclusion factors from the Delphi expert panel indicated that smart cities needed to include shared economy models in their strategies. Furthermore, social isolation born by costs of infrastructure needed addressing through holistic A-political social enterprise models, and a better understanding of social benefit measurement is needed. Conclusion: In investigating the collaboration between key public transportation stakeholders, a theoretical model of social enterprise transportation models that positively impact upon the smart city needs of reduced transport poverty and social isolation was formed. As such, the research has identified how a revised business model of Mobility of a Service allied to a social entrepreneurship can deliver impactful measured social benefits associated to smart city design existent research.
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93191
Assessing Sustainability Dimensions of Transportation as a Critical Infrastructure: Jordan as a Case Study
Abstract:
Infrastructure is the fundamental facility that plays an important part in socio-economic development for modern societies, if such sector is well planned, managed by decision makers in a way that is compatible with the population growth, safety, and national security needs; it will enrich progress, prosperity, awareness, social and economic welfare for any country. Infrastructure is the most important aspect of life because it can provide materials, products, and services that will improve and facilitate living conditions and maintain sustainability at the same time, and in order to study critical infrastructure, in general, we must think sustainability. Otherwise there will be a significant gap. The planning processes for sustainability include urban infrastructure and public transportation are considered the most important sectors for economic development for both developed and developing countries as they are linked to the civilizational and urban development, meanwhile, choosing the appropriate transportation mode that will provide a good level of service, and increase the satisfaction of the potential users is a difficult task. This research paper tries to assess where is Jordan located vs. each transportation sustainability dimensions in aspects related to social, economic and environmental dimensions based on (Zietsman et al. 2006) adopted model for sustainability transportation infrastructure. Measures of performance indicators for each dimensional goal were traced and supported with needed data, figures and statistical findings. The study uses analytical, descriptive style and methodology based on different references and previous studies from secondary data sources to support the case. Recommendations for enhancing sustainability were concluded, and future reform directions were proposed which can be applied to Jordan and generalized for other developing countries with similar circumstances.
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93181
The Electric Car Wheel Hub Motor Work Analysis with the Use of 2D FEM Electromagnetic Method and 3D CFD Thermal Simulations
Abstract:
The article is concerned with the design of an electric in wheel hub motor installed in an electric car with two-wheel drive. It presents the construction of the motor on the 3D cross-section model. Work simulation of the motor (applicated to Fiat Panda car) and selected driving parameters such as driving on the road with a slope of 20%, driving at maximum speed, maximum acceleration of the car from 0 to 100 km/h are considered by the authors in the article. The demand for the drive power taking into account the resistance to movement was determined for selected driving conditions. The parameters of the motor operation and the power losses in its individual elements, calculated using the FEM 2D method, are presented for the selected car driving parameters. The calculated power losses are used in 3D models for thermal calculations using the CFD method. Detailed construction of thermal models with materials data, boundary conditions and losses calculated using the FEM 2D method are presented in the article. The article presents and describes calculated temperature distributions in individual motor components such as winding, permanent magnets, magnetic core, body, cooling system components. Generated losses in individual motor components and their impact on the limitation of its operating parameters are described by authors. Attention is paid to the losses generated in permanent magnets, which are a source of heat as the removal of which from inside the motor is difficult. Presented results of calculations show how individual motor power losses, generated in different load conditions while driving, affect its thermal state.
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92817
Landscape Pattern Evolution and Optimization Strategy in Wuhan Urban Development Zone, China
Authors:
Abstract:
With the rapid development of urbanization process in China, its environmental protection pressure is severely tested. So, analyzing and optimizing the landscape pattern is an important measure to ease the pressure on the ecological environment. This paper takes Wuhan Urban Development Zone as the research object, and studies its landscape pattern evolution and quantitative optimization strategy. First, remote sensing image data from 1990 to 2015 were interpreted by using Erdas software. Next, the landscape pattern index of landscape level, class level, and patch level was studied based on Fragstats. Then five indicators of ecological environment based on National Environmental Protection Standard of China were selected to evaluate the impact of landscape pattern evolution on the ecological environment. Besides, the cost distance analysis of ArcGIS was applied to simulate wildlife migration thus indirectly measuring the improvement of ecological environment quality. The result shows that the area of land for construction increased 491%. But the bare land, sparse grassland, forest, farmland, water decreased 82%, 47%, 36%, 25% and 11% respectively. They were mainly converted into construction land. On landscape level, the change of landscape index all showed a downward trend. Number of patches (NP), Landscape shape index (LSI), Connection index (CONNECT), Shannon's diversity index (SHDI), Aggregation index (AI) separately decreased by 2778, 25.7, 0.042, 0.6, 29.2%, all of which indicated that the NP, the degree of aggregation and the landscape connectivity declined. On class level, the construction land and forest, CPLAND, TCA, AI and LSI ascended, but the Distribution Statistics Core Area (CORE_AM) decreased. As for farmland, water, sparse grassland, bare land, CPLAND, TCA and DIVISION, the Patch Density (PD) and LSI descended, yet the patch fragmentation and CORE_AM increased. On patch level, patch area, Patch perimeter, Shape index of water, farmland and bare land continued to decline. The three indexes of forest patches increased overall, sparse grassland decreased as a whole, and construction land increased. It is obvious that the urbanization greatly influenced the landscape evolution. Ecological diversity and landscape heterogeneity of ecological patches clearly dropped. The Habitat Quality Index continuously declined by 14%. Therefore, optimization strategy based on greenway network planning is raised for discussion. This paper contributes to the study of landscape pattern evolution in planning and design and to the research on spatial layout of urbanization.
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92486
A Risk-Based Comprehensive Framework for the Assessment of the Security of Multi-Modal Transport Systems
Abstract:
The challenges of the rapid growth in the demand for transport has traditionally been seen within the context of the problems of congestion, air quality, climate change, safety, and affordability. However, there are increasing threats including those related to crime such as cyber-attacks that threaten the security of the transport of people and goods. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper presents for the first time, a comprehensive framework for the assessment of the current and future security issues of multi-modal transport systems. The approach or method proposed is based on a structured framework starting with a detailed specification of the transport asset map (transport system architecture), followed by the identification of vulnerabilities. The asset map and vulnerabilities are used to identify the various approaches for exploitation of the vulnerabilities, leading to the creation of a set of threat scenarios. The threat scenarios are then transformed into risks and their categories, and include insights for their mitigation. The consideration of the mitigation space is holistic and includes the formulation of appropriate policies and tactics and/or technical interventions. The quality of the framework is ensured through a structured and logical process that identifies the stakeholders, reviews the relevant documents including policies and identifies gaps, incorporates targeted surveys to augment the reviews, and uses subject matter experts for validation. The approach to categorising security risks is an extension of the current methods that are typically employed. Specifically, the partitioning of risks into either physical or cyber categories is too limited for developing mitigation policies and tactics/interventions for transport systems where an interplay between physical and cyber processes is very often the norm. This interplay is rapidly taking on increasing significance for security as the emergence of cyber-physical technologies, are shaping the future of all transport modes. Examples include: Connected Autonomous Vehicles (CAVs) in road transport; the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS) in rail transport; Automatic Identification System (AIS) in maritime transport; advanced Communications, Navigation and Surveillance (CNS) technologies in air transport; and the Internet of Things (IoT). The framework adopts a risk categorisation scheme that considers risks as falling within the following threat→impact relationships: Physical→Physical, Cyber→Cyber, Cyber→Physical, and Physical→Cyber). Thus the framework enables a more complete risk picture to be developed for today’s transport systems and, more importantly, is readily extendable to account for emerging trends in the sector that will define future transport systems. The framework facilitates the audit and retro-fitting of mitigations in current transport operations and the analysis of security management options for the next generation of Transport enabling strategic aspirations such as systems with security-by-design and co-design of safety and security to be achieved. An initial application of the framework to transport systems has shown that intra-modal consideration of security measures is sub-optimal and that a holistic and multi-modal approach that also addresses the intersections/transition points of such networks is required as their vulnerability is high. This is in-line with traveler-centric transport service provision, widely accepted as the future of mobility services. In summary, a risk-based framework is proposed for use by the stakeholders to comprehensively and holistically assess the security of transport systems. It requires a detailed understanding of the transport architecture to enable a detailed vulnerabilities analysis to be undertaken, creates threat scenarios and transforms them into risks which form the basis for the formulation of interventions.
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92478
Design and Analysis for a 4-Stage Crash Energy Management System for Railway Vehicles
Abstract:
A 4-stage crash energy management (CEM) system for subway rail vehicles used by Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) in the USA is developed in this paper. The 4 stages of this new CEM system include 1) energy absorbing coupler (draft gear and shear bolts), 2) primary energy absorbers (aluminum honeycomb structured box), 3) secondary energy absorbers (crush tube), and 4) collision post and corner post. A sliding anti-climber and a fixed anti-climber are designed at the front of the vehicle cooperating with the 4-stage CEM to maximize the energy to be absorbed and minimize the damage to passengers and crews. In order to investigate the effectiveness of this CEM system, both finite element (FE) methods and crashworthiness test have been employed. The whole vehicle consists of 3 married pairs, i.e., six cars. In the FE approach, full-scale railway car models are developed and different collision cases such as a single moving car impacting a rigid wall, two moving cars into a rigid wall, two moving cars into two stationary cars, six moving cars into six stationary cars and so on are investigated. The FE analysis results show that the railway vehicle incorporating this CEM system has a superior crashworthiness performance. In the crashworthiness test, a simplified vehicle front end including the sliding anti-climber, the fixed anti-climber, the primary energy absorbers, the secondary energy absorber, the collision post and the corner post is built and impacted to a rigid wall. The same test model is also analyzed in the FE and the results such as crushing force, stress, and strain of critical components, acceleration and velocity curves are compared and studied. FE results show very good comparison to the test results.
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92421
In-Depth Investigations on the Sequences of Accidents of Powered Two Wheelers Based on Police Crash Reports of Medan, North Sumatera Province Indonesia, Using Decision Aiding Processes
Abstract:
This paper seeks the incoherencies in cognitive process during an accident of Powered Two Wheelers (PTW) by understanding the factual sequences of events and causal relations for each case of accident. The principle of this approach is undertaking in-depth investigations on case per case of PTW accidents based on elaborate data acquisitions on accident sites that officially stamped in Police Crash Report (PCRs) 2012 of Medan with criteria, involved at least one PTW and resulted in serious injury and fatalities. The analysis takes into account four modules: accident chronologies, perpetrator, and victims, injury surveillance, vehicles and road infrastructures, comprising of traffic facilities, road geometry, road alignments and weather. The proposal for improvement could have provided a favorable influence on the chain of functional processes and events leading to collision. Decision Aiding Processes (DAP) assists in structuring different entities at different decisional levels, as each of these entities has its own objectives and constraints. The entities (A) are classified into 6 groups of accidents: solo PTW accidents; PTW vs. PTW; PTW vs. pedestrian; PTW vs. motor-trishaw; and PTW vs. other vehicles and consecutive crashes. The entities are also distinguished into 4 decisional levels: level of road users and street systems; operational level (crash-attended police officers or CAPO and road engineers), tactical level (Regional Traffic Police, Department of Transportation, and Department of Public Work), and strategic level (Traffic Police Headquarters (TCPHI)), parliament, Ministry of Transportation and Ministry of Public Work). These classifications will lead to conceptualization of Problem Situations (P) and Problem Formulations (I) in DAP context. The DAP concerns the sequences process of the incidents until the time the accident occurs, which can be modelled in terms of five activities of procedural rationality: identification on initial human features (IHF), investigation on proponents attributes (PrAT), on Injury Surveillance (IS), on the interaction between IHF and PrAt and IS (intercorrelation), then unravel the sequences of incidents; filtering and disclosure, which include: what needs to activate, modify or change or remove, what is new and what is priority. These can relate to the activation or modification or new establishment of law. The PrAt encompasses the problems of environmental, road infrastructure, road and traffic facilities, and road geometry. The evaluation model (MP) is generated to bridge P and I since MP is produced by the intercorrelations among IHF, PrAT and IS extracted from the PCRs 2012 of Medan. There are 7 findings of incoherences: lack of knowledge and awareness on the traffic regulations and the risks of accidents, especially when riding between 0 < x < 10 km from house, riding between 22 p.m.–05.30 a.m.; lack of engagements on procurement of IHF Data by CAPO; lack of competency of CAPO on data procurement in accident-sites; no intercorrelation among IHF and PrAt and IS in the database systems of PCRs; lack of maintenance and supervision on the availabilities and the capacities of traffic facilities and road infrastructure; instrumental bias with wash-back impacts towards the TCPHI; technical robustness with wash-back impacts towards the CAPO and TCPHI.