Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 40418

Transport and Vehicle Engineering

Design, Analysis and Optimization of Space Frame for BAJA SAE Chassis
The present study focuses on the determination of torsional stiffness of a space frame chassis and comparison of elements used in the Finite Element Analysis of frame. The study also discusses various concepts and design aspects of a space frame chassis with the emphasis on their applicability in BAJA SAE vehicles. Torsional stiffness is a very important factor that determines the chassis strength, vehicle control, and handling. Therefore, it is very important to determine the torsional stiffness of the vehicle before designing an optimum chassis so that it should not fail during extreme conditions. This study determines the torsional stiffness of frame with respect to suspension shocks, roll-stiffness and anti-roll bar rates. A spring model is developed to study the effects of suspension parameters. The engine greatly contributes to torsional stiffness, and therefore, its effects on torsional stiffness need to be considered. Deflections in the tire have not been considered in the present study. The proper element shape should be selected to analyze the effects of various loadings on chassis while implementing finite element methods. The study compares the accuracy of results and computational time for different element types. Shape functions of these elements are also discussed. Modelling methodology is discussed for the multibody analysis of chassis integrated with suspension arms and engine. Proper boundary conditions are presented so as to replicate the real life conditions.
Intelligent Road Surface Monitoring Based on Optical and Meteorological Measurements
Monitoring of road surface conditions plays an essential role in driving safety and road maintenance. Currently, surface condition monitoring is often performed by weather information or maintenance personnel recordings, which are limited in timeliness, objectivity, and require human interpretation. In this work, we propose an economical solution for intelligent monitoring of surface conditions based on road cameras and meteorological measurements. The number of ordinary road surface conditions is often limited, e.g., dry, wet, or snowy. Thus, surface condition monitoring can be formulated as a supervised machine learning problem. A system learns the representation of different surface conditions from training data using machine learning models, and then applies the learned knowledge to new surface data to predict the conditions. After watching approximately 50,000 images across different seasons, we found that most surface conditions can be categorized into four conditions: dry, wet, full snowy and partial snowy. Consequently, 9,349 road images and associated meteorological parameters have been collected and served as training data. Feature representation is an essential part in machine learning. In this work, a number of image features together with meteorological parameters were first derived. A feature selection approach was then proposed using F-Score and PCA. Through the selection approach, four groups of image features were identified to be highly relevant with surface conditions, including luminance/chrominance features, gradient features, edge features, and texture features. We also found that five meteorological parameters: road surface temperature, air temperature, dew point, relative humidity, and precipitation, have shown strong discriminability in surface conditions. Furthermore, surface conditions have temporal connection, e.g., current condition presents indication for succeeding condition. Therefore, the condition changes are also included. Then, an SVM (support vector machine) model has been proposed to perform the machine learning problem. The above SVM approach only classifies surface conditions within the four predefined categories. Another crucial road condition is icy, especially invisible one (e.g., black ice). In this case, optical images become unimportant, while the meteorological parameters are emphasized. To handle such situation, another icy detection algorithm has been proposed based on the meteorological parameters. This algorithm mimics the ice formation process based on meteorological parameters: surface temperature, air temperature, wind speed, dew point, relative humidity, precipitation, road and air temperature changes. Four types of icy conditions are detected: frost, packed snow, black ice, and freezing rain. The SVM model is also employed in icy detection, e.g., a snowy condition given by the SVM model can differentiate a packed snow condition from others. Simulative experiments have been conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed system. In total 6,000 images randomly captured across different seasons in 2016 have been collected together with meteorological parameters. Then the system was employed to detect the surface conditions in these images, and compared with a manual classification performed by maintenance experts. The comparison result has demonstrated promising accuracy (87.4%) of the system, which confirms that using optical and meteorological sensors can be an accurate, economical solution for monitoring road surface conditions. The developed system is accessible online (http://insitu.cmr.no/roadweatheranalysis/).
Analysis of Energy Efficiency Behavior with the use of Train Dynamics Simulator and Statistical Tools: Case Study of Vitoria Minas Railway, Brazil
The large variation in the price of diesel in Brazil directly affects the variable cost of companies operating in the transportation sector. In rail transport, the great challenge is to overcome the annual budget, cargo and ore transported with cost reduction in relation to previous years, becoming more efficient every year. Some effective measures are necessary to achieve the reduction of the liter ratio consumed by KTKB (Gross Ton per Kilometer multiplied by thousand). This acronym represents the indicator of energy efficiency of some railroads in the world. This study is divided into two parts: the first, to identify using statistical tools, part of the controlled variables in the railways, which have a correlation with the energy efficiency indicator, seeking to aid decision-making. The second, with the use of the train dynamics simulator, within scenarios defined in the operational reality of a railroad, seeks to optimize the train formations and the train stop model for the change of train drivers. With the completion of the study, companies in the rail sector are expected to be able to reduce some of their transportation costs.
A Study on the Reliability Evaluation of a Timer Card for Air Dryer of the Railway Vehicle
The EMU (electric multiple unit) vehicle timer card is a PCB (printed circuit board) for controlling the air-dryer to remove the moisture of the generated air from the air compressor of the braking device. This card is exposed to the lower part of the railway vehicle, so it is greatly affected by the external environment such as temperature and humidity. The main cause of the failure of this timer card is deterioration of soldering area of the PCB surface due to temperature and humidity. Therefore, in the viewpoint of preventive maintenance, it is important to evaluate the reliability of the timer card and predict the replacement cycle to secure the safety of the air braking device is one of the main devices for driving. In this study, the existing and the improved products were evaluated on the reliability through ALT (accelerated life test). In addition, the acceleration factor by the 'Coffin-Manson' equation was obtained, and the remaining lifetime was compared and examined.
Potentials of the Electrification of Road Transport
Germany has set the goal to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions to at least 80 % by 2050 compared to 1990. Achieving this goal requires the transition to renewable energy sources. For this purpose, the share of renewables in Germany’s total energy consumption is set to increase up to 60 % by 2050. However, an extensive integration of renewable energy resources in the current power supply system is obstructed due to the intermittency of solar and wind energy. For this reason, the application of renewable energy resources shall be combined with energy storage systems. Therefore, electric vehicles seem to offer a great potential because the vehicle batteries can be used as a storage for fluctuating electricity from renewable sources. The research campus Mobility2Grid addresses the potentials and challenges of integrating electric vehicles into decentralized energy grids. New technology and road transportation options which should be developed in this research project could be examined and evaluated at the EUREF campus. Firstly, this includes technologies who linking energy producers and consumers in both directions. So it will also be possible for the energy to store in the vehicle and to recover into the supply network (vehicle-to-grid). Secondly, this requires electric vehicle fleets, which can be integrated in the smart grid system. This research analyzed the potentials and challenges of electrifying commercial and public-service vehicle fleets in urban transport - including car sharing, municipal buses and waste transportation. So far, the focus is on (i) analyzing state-of-the-art battery and charging technologies, (ii) identifying technical and operational requirements of electric vehicle fleets and (iii) assessing the suitability of different technology options, including fully or partially electric propulsion systems. Current activities are concerned with the development of demonstrator vehicles and mobility concepts, considering the integration of electric vehicles into the smart grid by the example of the EUREF campus in Berlin. Thus, the research campus Mobility2Grid is one of Germany’s premier pioneers considering the role of electric vehicles in the road transportation sector for a sustainable energy transition.
Analyzing Transit Network Design versus Urban Dispersion
This research answers which is the most suitable transit network structure to serve specific demand requirements in an increasing urban dispersion process. Two main approaches of network design are found in the literature. On the one hand, a traditional answer, widespread in our cities, that develops a high number of lines to connect most of origin-destination pairs by direct trips; an approach based on the idea that users averse to transfers. On the other hand, some authors advocate an alternative design characterized by simple networks where transfer is essential to complete most of trips. To answer which of them is the best option, we use a two-step methodology. First, by means of an analytical model, three basic network structures are compared: a radial scheme, starting point for the other two structures, a direct trip-based network, and a transfer-based one, which represent the two alternative transit network designs. The model optimizes the network configuration with regard to the total cost for each structure. For a scenario of dispersion, the best alternative is the structure with the minimum cost. This dispersion degree is defined in a simple way considering that only a central area attracts all trips. If this area is small, we have a high concentrated mobility pattern; if this area is too large, the city is highly decentralized. In this first step, we can determine the area of applicability for each structure in function to that urban dispersion degree. The analytical results show that a radial structure is suitable when the demand is so centralized, however, when this demand starts to scatter, new transit lines should be implemented to avoid transfers. If the urban dispersion advances, the introduction of more lines is no longer a good alternative, in this case, the best solution is a change of structure, from direct trips to a network based on transfers. The area of applicability of each network strategy is not constant, it depends on the characteristics of demand, city and transport technology. In the second step, we translate analytical results to a real case study by the relationship between the parameters of dispersion of the model and direct measures of dispersion in a real city. Two dimensions of the urban sprawl process are considered: concentration, defined by Gini coefficient, and centralization by area based centralization index. Once it is estimated the real dispersion degree, we are able to identify in which area of applicability the city is located. In summary, from a strategic point of view, we can obtain with this methodology which is the best network design approach for a city, comparing the theoretical results with the real dispersion degree.
Addressing Housing Issue at Regional Level Planning: A Case Study of Mumbai Metropolitan Region
Mumbai city, which is the business capital of India and one of the most crowded cities in the world, holds the biggest slum in Asia. The Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR) occupies an area of 4035 sq.km. with a population of 22.8 million people. This population is mostly urban with 91% of this population living in areas of Municipal Corporations and Councils. Another 3% live in Census Towns. The region has 9 Municipal Corporations, 8 Municipal councils, and around 1000 villages. On the one hand MMR reflects the highest contribution to the Nations overall economy and on the other hand it shows the horrible and intolerable picture of about 2 million people, who are living in slums/without even slum with totally unhygienic conditions and with total loss of hope. The generations are about to get affected adversely if the solution is not worked out. This study is an attempt towards working out the solution. Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA) is state government's authority, specially formed to govern the development of MMR. MMRDA is engaged in long term planning, promotion of new growth centres, implementation of strategic projects and financing infrastructure development. While preparing the master plan for MMR for next 20 years MMRDA conducted a detail study regarding Housing scenario in MMR and possible options for improvement. The author was the in charge officer for the said assignment. This paper puts light on the interesting outcomes of the research study, which ranges from the adverse effects of government policies, automatic responses of housing market, effects on planning processes, and overall changing needs of housing patterns in the world due to changes in the social mechanism. It alarms the urban planners who usually focus on smart infrastructure development, about allied future dangers. This housing study will explain the complexities, realities and needs of innovations in the housing policies all over the world. The paper will explain further few success stories and failure stories of government initiatives with reasons. It gives the clear idea about the differences in needs of housing for people from different economic groups and direct and indirect market pressures on low cost housing. Magical phenomenon came in front like a large percentage of vacant houses is present in spite of the huge need. Housing market gets affected by the developments or any other physical and financial changes taking place in the nearby areas or cities, also by changes in cities which are located far from the region and also by the international investments or policy changes. Instead of just depending on governments actions in case of generation of affordable housing, it becomes equally important to make the housing markets automatically generate such stock and still make them sustainable is the aim of all the movement. In summary, we may say that the paper will sequentially elaborate the complete dynamics of housing in one of the most crowded urban area in the world that is Mumbai Metropolitan Region, with a lot of data, analysis, case studies, and recommendations.
Melanie Ostermann, Eivind Birkeland, Ying Xue, Alexander Sauter, Mihaela R. Cimpan
The present research project aims to determine whether it is possible to have a statement, allowing you to have an economic model to establish clearly if the population that uses the rail system underground in the city of Medellin with an increase in productivity total factor. The present project aims to concentrate on the surroundings to the system underground for a period of 60 months in the city of Medellin. According to the review bibliographic is can establish that in it most of them cases, the cities that have with systems of transport rail are more productive. And should to its time present is an analysis that may lead to determine if effectively the use of the transport railway improves the productivity of a city and its inhabitants.
Psychological Burden of Driving on Road Curves with Volumetric Pulse Waves
The accident rate in curve sections is usually higher than that in straight sections in load networks. The main cause of traffic accidents is the decision delays, operational errors, and human errors of drivers. Fatigue and stress gives drivers the psychological burden. The burden affects the transmission of the operation information required for driving behavior. In the volumetric pulse wave measurement used in this study, near-infrared light is irradiated to the earlobe, to detect the transmitted or reflected light by a light receiving element. By using the fact that transmitted light and borrowed light can be changed by bloodstream, the change of the bloodstream is evaluated. By using embedding theorem and orbit parallelism gauging method, the authors tried to clarify the relationship of the traffic environment and driver behavior.
Integrated Land Use and Transport Planning Process towards Sustainable Development: Lesson Learned from Germany
Accelerating economic growth in Indonesia has led to a rapid growth in urbanization and motorization that empirically engenders an unsustainable development. It is believed that integrated land use and transport planning process plays an important role to develop more sustainable transport development. Nevertheless, it is less considered in the planning practice. Therefore, knowledge transfer, particularly in a form of comparison analysis of land use and transport planning process between Indonesia and the best practice in a developed country, may facilitate to foster the understanding of how to achieve a more sustainable land use and transport planning. This paper aims to investigate the possibility of knowledge transfer from Germany’s strategies in promoting sustainable transport and land use planning to Indonesian strategic planning in the current situation. Germany has been chosen as the best practice of developed country because this country, despite its rapid growth of motorization, has been successful in creating a sustainability of the transportation system through its integrated planning system. The analysis compares the strengths and weaknesses of land use and transport planning in both countries and its coherence to sustainable transport goals. The comparison analysis highlights some lessons in particular, that seem likely to be necessary for the improvement of land use and transport planning in Indonesia: (a) reciprocal planning and strategies coordination between all government levels and related institutions, (b) formal appraisal method to determine the transport infrastructure development priorities; and (c) improvement of public participation in preparing the land use and transport plans. Eventually, this study promotes valuable measures based on insight from Germany’s experiences for a better planning practice not only for Indonesia but also for other developing, emerging and perhaps developed countries.
A Literature Review on Development of a Forecast Supported Approach for the Continuous Pre-Planning of Required Transport Capacity for the Design of Sustainable Transport Chains
Logistics service providers are facing increasing volatility concerning future transport demand. Short-term planning horizons and planning uncertainties lead to reduced capacity utilisation and increasing empty mileage. To overcome these challenges, a model is proposed to continuously pre-plan future transport capacity in order to redesign and adjust the intermodal fleet accordingly. It is expected that the model will enable logistics service providers to organise more economically and ecologically sustainable transport chains in a more flexible way. To further describe such planning aspects, this paper gives a structured literature review on transport planning problems. The focus is on strategic and tactical planning levels, comprising relevant fleet-sizing-, network-design- and choice-of-carriers-problems. Models and their developed solution techniques are presented and the literature review is concluded with an outlook to our future research objectives
Integrating High-Performance Transport Modes into Transport Networks: A Multidimensional Impact Analysis
In the EU, the transport sector accounts for roughly one fourth of the total greenhouse gas emissions. In fact, the transport sector is one of the main contributors of greenhouse gas emissions. Climate protection targets aim to reduce the negative effects of greenhouse gas emissions (e.g. climate change, global warming) worldwide. Achieving a modal shift to foster environmentally friendly modes of transport such as rail and inland waterways is an important strategy to fulfill the climate protection targets. The present paper goes beyond these conventional transport modes and reflects upon currently emerging high-performance transport modes that yield the potential of complementing future transport systems in an efficient way. It will be defined which properties describe high-performance transport modes, which types of technology are included and what is their potential to contribute to a sustainable future transport network. The first step of this paper is to compile state-of-the-art information about high-performance transport modes to find out which technologies are currently emerging. A multidimensional impact analysis will be conducted afterwards to evaluate which of the technologies is most promising. This analysis will be performed from a spatial, social, economic and environmental perspective. Frequently used instruments such as cost-benefit analysis and SWOT analysis will be applied for the multidimensional assessment. The estimations for the analysis will be derived based on desktop research and discussions in an interdisciplinary team of researchers. For the purpose of this work, high-performance transport modes are characterized as transport modes with very fast and very high throughput connections that could act as efficient extension to the existing transport network. The recently proposed hyperloop system represents a potential high-performance transport mode which might be an innovative supplement for the current transport networks. The idea of hyperloops is that persons and freight are shipped in a tube at more than airline speed. Another innovative technology consists in drones for freight transport. Amazon already tests drones for their parcel shipments, they aim for delivery times of 30 minutes. Drones can, therefore, be considered as high-performance transport modes as well. The Trans-European Transport Networks program (TEN-T) addresses the expansion of transport grids in Europe and also includes high speed rail connections to better connect important European cities. These services should increase competitiveness of rail and are intended to replace aviation, which is known to be a polluting transport mode. In this sense, the integration of high-performance transport modes as described above facilitates the objectives of the TEN-T program. The results of the multidimensional impact analysis will reveal potential future effects of the integration of high-performance modes into transport networks. Building on that, a recommendation on the following (research) steps can be given which are necessary to ensure the most efficient implementation and integration processes.
Impacting the Processes of Freight Logistics at Upper Austrian Companies by the Use of Mobility Management
Traffic is being induced by companies due to their economic behavior. Basically, two different types of traffic occur at company sites: freight traffic and commuting traffic. Due to the fact that these traffic types are connected to each other in different kinds, an integrated approach to manage them is useful. Mobility management is a proved method for companies, to handle the traffic processes caused by their business activities. According to recent trend analysis in Austria, the freight traffic as well as the individual traffic, as part of the commuting traffic, will continue to increase. More traffic jams, as well as negative environmental impacts, are expected impacts for the future. Mobility management is a tool to control the traffic behavior with the scope to reduce emissions and other negative effects which are caused by traffic. Until now, mobility management is mainly used for optimizing commuting traffic without taking the freight logistics processes into consideration. However, the method of mobility management can be used to improve the freight traffic area of a company as well. The focus of this paper will be particularly laid on analyzing to what extent companies are already using mobility management to influence not only the commuting traffic they produce but also their processes of freight logistics. A further objective is to acquire knowledge about the motivating factors which persuade companies to introduce and apply mobility management. Additionally, advantages and disadvantages of this tool will be defined as well as limitations and factors of success, with a special focus on freight logistics, will be depicted. The first step of this paper is to conduct a literature review on the issue of mobility management with a special focus on freight logistics processes. To compare the theoretical findings with the practice, interviews, following a structured interview guidline, with mobility managers of different companies in Upper Austria will be undertaken. A qualitative analysis of these surveys will in a first step show the motivation behind using mobility management to improve traffic processes and how far this approach is already being used to especially influence the freight traffic of the companies. An evaluation to what extent the method of mobility management is already being approached at Upper Austrian companies to regulate freight logistics processes will be one outcome of this publication. Furthermore, the results of the theoretical and practical analysis will reveal not only the possibilities but also the limitations of using mobility management to influence the processes of freight logistics.
Systematic Analysis of Logistics Location Search Methods under Aspects of Sustainability
Selecting a logistics location is vital for logistics providers, food retailing and other trading companies since the selection poses an essential factor for economic success. Therefore various location search methods like cost-benefit analysis and others are well known and under usage. The development of a logistics location can be related to considerable negative effects for the eco system such as sealing the surface, wrecking of biodiversity or CO2 and noise emissions generated by freight and commuting traffic. The increasing importance of sustainability demands for taking an informed decision when selecting a logistics location for the future. Sustainability considers economic, ecologic and social aspects which should be equally integrated in the process of location search. Objectives of this paper are to define various methods which support the selection of sustainable logistics locations and to generate knowledge about the suitability, assets and limitations of the methods within the selection process. This paper investigates the role of economical, ecological and social aspects when searching for new logistics locations. Thereby, related work targeted towards location search is analyzed with respect to encoded sustainability aspects. In addition, this research aims to gain knowledge on how to include aspects of sustainability and take an informed decision when searching for a logistics location. As a result, a decomposition of the various location search methods in there components leads to a comparative analysis in form of a matrix. The comparison within a matrix enables a transparent overview about the mentioned assets and limitations of the methods and their suitability for selecting sustainable logistics locations. A further result is to generate knowledge on how to combine the separate methods to a new method for a more efficient selection of logistics locations in the context of sustainability. Future work will especially investigate the above mentioned combination of various location search methods. The objective is to develop an innovative instrument, which supports the search for logistics locations with a focus on a balanced sustainability (economy, ecology, social). Because of an ideal selection of logistics locations, induced traffic should be reduced and a mode shift to rail and public transport should be facilitated.
Validation of Visibility Data from Road Weather Information Systems RWIS by Comparing Three Data Resources: Case Study in Ohio
Adverse weather conditions, particularly those with low visibility are critical to the driving tasks. However, few studies have explored the direct relationship between visibility distance and traffic flow/roadway safety due to the limitation of visibility data. The recent growth of deployment of Road Weather Information Systems (RWIS) makes segment-specific visibility information available which can be integrated with other Intelligent Transportation System (ITS), such as automated warning system and variable speed limit (VSL), to improve mobility and safety. Before applying the RWIS visibility measurements in traffic study and operations, it is critical to validate the data. Therefore, an attempt was made in the paper to examine the validity and viability of RWIS weather data by comparing visibility measurements from RWIS/airport weather stations, and visibility related information recorded by police in crash reports, based on Ohio data. The results indicated that RWIS visibility measurements were significantly different from airport visibility data but no conclusion regarding the reliability of RWIS visibility could be drawn in the consideration of no confirmed ground truth in the comparison. It was suggested in the paper that more objective methods are needed to valid the RWIS visibility measurements, such as continuous in-field measurements associated with various weather events using calibrated visibility sensors.
Subverting the Urban-Rural Dichotomy: The Sensitivity of Rural Settlement Morphology to Urban Development Variables
The relation between urban and rural environment is bilateral in nature: rural areas provide the main sources of food, energy and natural resources for cities, while these support market infrastructure, education, farming equipment, and technology required in rural areas. Although the dichotomy between urban and rural areas has been largely acknowledged, little has been reported on their interrelation, specifically on the range of urban-related factors affecting the countryside. The complex urban-rural relationship has a fundamental role on urbanization of rural areas. While the multifaceted transformation of rural areas that has occurred in recent decades following different types of urban development has been largely discussed in the literature of various disciplines, less research has addressed scopes and drivers of these transmutations within the architecture and urban design realms. To fill the gap, this paper identifies various aspects of the urban-rural linkage and the ways they have affected human inhabitation in the countryside in recent years. The analysis of the scant literature addressing this relationship, and the subsequent rural transformation shows that it can be driven either by global or context-specific issues. Global drivers, which are almost invariant worldwide, refer to food and energy systems, including related land and technologies. Context-specific issues instead, which differ between developed and developing countries (and even regionally, within specific countries), mainly comprise socio-economic aspects like social equity, poverty and health services. Rural physical development, however, such as morphological changes that are one of the most direct consequences of this linkage, deal with both. As examples of these physical aspects, while ‘hollow villages’ and ‘bedroom suburbs’ are universal issues, ‘a family of multiple houses’ and ‘new artificial countryside for retirements’ are ubiquitous issues in developing and developed countries alternatively. This study identifies four main variables affecting rural transformations: population growth and distribution, technological advancements in transportation and infrastructure, distance between rural and urban settlements, and enforced policies. It then describes how identified factors have transformed physical aspects of rural areas in both developing and developed countries by providing recent and emblematic international examples. Finally, it highlights how knowledge about the complex nature of urban-rural linkage not only can contribute to future discourses about rural transformation, which have been neglected in recent studies but can also inform policy-makers, providing insights on consequences of urban changes on larger rural territories and their human settlements.
A Method for Evaluating Gender Equity of Cycling from Rawls Justice Perspective
Promoting cycling, as an affordable environmentally friendly mode of transport to replace private car use has been central to sustainable transport policies. Cycling is faster than walking and combined with public transport has the potential to extend the opportunities that people can access. In other words, cycling, besides direct positive health impacts, can improve people mobility and ultimately their quality of life. Transport literature well supports the close relationship between mobility, quality of life, and, well being. At the same time inequity in the distribution of access and mobility has been associated with the key aspects of injustice and social exclusion. The pattern of social exclusion and inequality in access are also often related to population characteristics such as age, gender, income, health, and ethnic background. Therefore, while investing in transport infrastructure it is important to consider the equity of provided access for different population groups. This paper proposes a method to evaluate the equity of cycling in a city from Rawls egalitarian perspective. Since this perspective is concerned with the difference between individuals and social groups, this method combines accessibility measures and Theil index of inequality that allows capturing the inequalities ‘within’ and ‘between’ groups. The paper specifically focuses on two population characteristics as gender and ethnic background. Following Rawls equity principles, this paper measures accessibility by bikes to a selection of urban activities that can be linked to the concept of the social primary goods. Moreover, as growing number of cities around the world have launched bike-sharing systems (BSS) this paper incorporates both private and public bikes networks in the estimation of accessibility levels. Additionally, the typology of bike lanes (separated from or shared with roads), the presence of a bike sharing system in the network, as well as bike facilities (e.g. parking racks) have been included in the developed accessibility measures. Application of this proposed method to a real case study, the city of Malmö, Sweden, shows its effectiveness and efficiency. Although the accessibility levels were estimated only based on gender and ethnic background characteristics of the population, the author suggests that the analysis can be applied to other contexts and further developed using other properties, such as age, income, or health.
Establishment of Standardized Bill of Material for Korean Urban Rail Transit System
The railway market across the world has been standardized with the globalization strategy of Europe. On the other hand, the Korean urban railway system is operated by 10 operators which have established their standards and independently managed BOMs. When operators manage different BOMs, lack of system compatibility prevents them from sharing information and hinders work linkage and efficiency. Europe launched a large-scale railway project in 1993 when the European Union went into effect. In particular, the recent standardization efforts of the EU-funded MODTRAIN project are similar to the approach of the urban rail system standardization research that is underway in Korea. This paper looks into the BOMs of Koran urban rail transit operators and suggests the standard BOM for the rail transit system in Korea by reviewing rail vehicle technologies and the MODTRAIN project of Europe. The standard BOM is structured up to the key device level or module level, and it allows vehicle manufacturers and component manufacturers to manage their lower-level BOMs and share them with each other and with operators.
Performance Evaluation of Routing Protocols in Vehicular Adhoc Networks
This study explores the implication of Vehicular Adhoc Network (VANET) - in the rural and urban scenarios that is one domain of Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET). VANET provides wireless communication between vehicle to vehicle and also roadside units. The Federal Commission Committee of United States of American has been allocated 75 MHz of the spectrum band in the 5.9 GHz frequency range for dedicated short-range communications (DSRC) that are specifically designed to enhance any road safety applications and entertainment/information applications. There are several vehicular related projects viz; California path, car 2 car communication consortium, the ETSI, and IEEE 1609 working group that have already been conducted to improve the overall road safety or traffic management. After the critical literature review, the selection of routing protocols is determined, and its performance was well thought-out in the urban and rural scenarios. Numerous routing protocols for VANET are applied to carry out current research. Its evaluation was conceded with the help of selected protocols through simulation via performance metric i.e. throughput and packet drop. Excel and Google graph API tools are used for plotting the graphs after the simulation results in order to compare the selected routing protocols which result with each other. In addition, the sum of the output from each scenario was computed to undoubtedly present the divergence in results. The findings of the current study present that DSR gives enhanced performance for low packet drop and high throughput as compared to AODV and DSDV in an urban congested area and in rural environments. On the other hand, in low-density area, VANET AODV gives better results as compared to DSR. The worth of the current study may be judged as the information exchanged between vehicles is useful for comfort, safety, and entertainment. Furthermore, the communication system performance depends on the way routing is done in the network and moreover, the routing of the data based on protocols implement in the network. The above-presented results lead to policy implication and develop our understanding of the broader spectrum of VANET.
Spatial Analysis of PnR Users' Dynamic Accessibility to Train Station: A Case Study in Perth
Accessibility analysis, examining people’s ability to access facilities and destinations, is a fundamental assessment for transport planning, policy making and social exclusion research. Dynamic accessibility has been an advanced accessibility indicator which measures accessibility in real-time traffic environment. This research collected travel time data with 15-minute interval via the TomTom® API. A framework for measuring dynamic accessibility was then developed based on the gravity theory and accessibility dichotomy. Travel time was derived at any given time and location for congestion hot spots identification. It helps travellers to understand travel time daily variability, and assists traffic engineers to monitor traffic congestions and finally develop effective strategies in order to mitigate traffic congestions.
Regression Approach for Optimal Purchase of Hosts Cluster in Fixed Fund for Hadoop Big-Data Platform
Purchasing fewer physical hosts of higher capability or inversely more hosts of lower capability for Hadoop big-data platform at a fixed fund is a must-be-made trade-off in practices. An exploratory study is presented for a housing big-data platform project (in short, HBDP), where typical big-data computing is with SQL queries of aggregation, joining, and time-space condition selection, which are executed upon massive data from more than 10 million housing units. A regression approach was developed for an empirical formula to predict the overall performance of Hadoop clusters of PC server hosts deployed in HBDP, in order to plan an optimal cluster configuration of a given fixed-fund. After a Hadoop big-data computing ecosystem, HDFS+Hive+Spark, and its executive framework are discussed, planned and set up for HBDP, an index for measuring the overall performance of the Hadoop clusters as well as the intended regression empirical formula were raised and calculated upon the test data gotten from executing three kinds of typical SQL query tasks, with respect to variables of CPU benchmark, memory size, virtual host division, and the number of element physical host in cluster. The research result has been successfully applied to a practical procurement of a cluster for housing big-data computing.
Urban Areas Management in Developing Countries: Analysis of the Urban Areas Crossed with Risk of Storm Water Drains, Aswan-Egypt
One of the riskiest areas in Aswan is Abouelreesh, which is suffering from torrents disasters because the torrents affected the urban areas and caused a lot of damage to buildings and infrastructure. Moreover, the main problem was the urban sprawl towards this risky areas. Wherefore, this paper tried to identifying the urban areas which located in risk area prone to flash floods. Analyzing this phenomenon needs a lot of data to get good results but in our case, the official data and field data were limited, so that we used free sources of satellite data. In addition, this paper used Arc GIS tools to obtain the storm water drains network by analyzing (DEM) files. Additionally, we studied the historical imagery in Google Earth to determine the age of each building. The last step was overlain between the urban area layer, and the storm water drains layer to initiate the crossed area between them. In which the urban growth rate in risky areas had risen up to 4.79 % in 2001, and reached 11.70% in 2013. The results of this study would be helpful to urban planners and government officials to make a primary estimate about the risk area situation, and the especially urban area located in risk areas from torrents.
Private University Students’ Travel Mode Choice Behaviour to University: Analysis in the Context of Dhaka City
Dhaka is the capital of Bangladesh. In Dhaka among other trips, significant percentages of trips comprise education trips. This paper explores significant factors for private university students’ education trip to the University. A paper pencil based survey has been conducted on Asia Pacific University student in Dhaka from May 2016 to July 2016. Participants were chosen randomly for the survey. Exploratory analysis showed that about 50% chose bus, 33% chose Rickshaw, 2% chose car and 15% chose to walk for travel to their University. Results from Multinomial Logit model revealed that travel cost, travel time and comfort are the significant factors for private university students to choose different modes. However, magnitude of coefficient of attribute comfort is significantly higher compared to travel cost and travel time. Result from this paper can be used by policymakers and Government agencies to provide more cost effective, comfortable journey to their University.
Exploratory Data Analysis of Passenger Movement on Delhi Urban Bus Route
Intelligent Transportation System is an integrated application of communication, control and monitoring and display process technologies for developing a user–friendly transportation system for urban areas in developing countries. In fact, the development of a country and the progress of its transportation system is complementary to each other. Urban traffic has been growing vigorously due to population growth as well as escalation of vehicle ownership causing congestion, delays, pollution, accidents, high-energy consumption and low productivity of resources. The development and management of urban transport in developing countries like India however, is at tryout stage with very few accumulations. Under the umbrella of ITS, urban corridor management strategy has proven to be one of the most successful system in accomplishing these objectives. The present study interprets and figures out the performance of the 27.4 Km long Urban Bus route having six intersections, five flyovers and 29 bus stops that cover significant area of the city by causality analysis. Performance interpretations incorporate Passenger Boarding and Alighting, Dwell time, Distance between Bus Stops and Total trip time taken by bus on selected urban route.
Identifying and Quantifying Factors Affecting Traffic Crash Severity under Heterogeneous Traffic Flow
Studies on safety on highways are becoming the need of the hour as over 400 lives are lost every day in India due to road crashes. In order to evaluate the factors that lead to different levels of crash severity, it is necessary to investigate the level of safety of highways and their relation to crashes. In the present study, an attempt is made to identify the factors that contribute to road crashes and to quantify their effect on the severity of road crashes. The study was carried out on a four-lane divided rural highway in India. The variables considered in the analysis includes components of horizontal alignment of highway, viz., straight or curve section; time of day, driveway density, presence of median; median opening; gradient; operating speed; and annual average daily traffic. These variables were considered after a preliminary analysis. The major complexities in the study are the heterogeneous traffic and the speed variation between different classes of vehicles along the highway. To quantify the impact of each of these factors, statistical analyses were carried out using Logit model and also negative binomial regression. The output from the statistical models proved that the variables viz., horizontal components of the highway alignment; driveway density; time of day; operating speed as well as annual average daily traffic show significant relation with the severity of crashes viz., fatal as well as injury crashes. Further, the annual average daily traffic has significant effect on the severity compared to other variables. The contribution of highway horizontal components on crash severity is also significant. Logit models can predict crashes better than the negative binomial regression models. The results of the study will help the transport planners to look into these aspects at the planning stage itself in the case of highways operated under heterogeneous traffic flow condition.
Development of a Forecast-Supported Approach for the Continuous Pre-Planning of Mandatory Transportation Capacity for the Design of Sustainable Transport Chains: A Literature Review
Transportation service providers are facing increasing volatility concerning future transport demand. Short-term planning horizons and planning uncertainties lead to reduced capacity utilization and increasing empty mileage. To overcome these challenges, a model is proposed to continuously pre-plan future transportation capacity in order to redesign and adjust the intermodal fleet accordingly. It is expected that the model will enable logistics service providers to organize more economically and ecologically sustainable transport chains in a more flexible way. To further describe these planning aspects, this paper gives an overview on transportation planning problems in a structured way. The focus is on strategic and tactical planning levels, comprising relevant fleet-sizing, service-network-design and choice-of-carriers-problems. Models and their developed solution techniques are presented, and the literature review is concluded with an outlook to our future research directions.
Exploration and Evaluation of the Effect of Multiple Countermeasures on Road Safety
Every day many people die or get disabled or injured on roads around the world, which necessitates more specific treatments for transportation safety issues. International road assessment program (iRAP) model is one of the comprehensive road safety models which accounting for many factors that affect road safety in a cost-effective way in low and middle income countries. In iRAP model road safety has been divided into five star ratings from 1 star (the lowest level) to 5 star (the highest level). These star ratings are based on star rating score which is calculated by iRAP methodology depending on road attributes, traffic volumes and operating speeds. The outcome of iRAP methodology are the treatments that can be used to improve road safety and reduce fatalities and serious injuries (FSI) numbers. These countermeasures can be used separately as a single countermeasure or mix as multiple countermeasures for a location. There is general agreement that the adequacy of a countermeasure is liable to consistent losses when it is utilized as a part of mix with different countermeasures. That is, accident diminishment appraisals of individual countermeasures cannot be easily added together. The iRAP model philosophy makes utilization of a multiple countermeasure adjustment factors to predict diminishments in the effectiveness of road safety countermeasures when more than one countermeasure is chosen. A multiple countermeasure correction factors are figured for every 100-meter segment and for every accident type. However, restrictions of this methodology incorporate a presumable over-estimation in the predicted crash reduction. This study aims to adjust this correction factor by developing new models to calculate the effect of using multiple countermeasures on the number of fatalities for a location or an entire road. Regression models have been used to establish relationships between crash frequencies and the factors that affect their rates. Multiple linear regression, negative binomial regression, and Poisson regression techniques were used to develop models that can address the effectiveness of using multiple countermeasures. Analyses are conducted using The R Project for Statistical Computing showed that a model developed by negative binomial regression technique could give more reliable results of the predicted number of fatalities after the implementation of road safety multiple countermeasures than the results from iRAP model. The results also showed that the negative binomial regression approach gives more precise results in comparison with multiple linear and Poisson regression techniques because of the overdispersion and standard error issues.
Field Saturation Flow Measurement Using Dynamic Passenger Car Unit under Mixed Traffic Condition
Saturation flow is a very important input variable for the design of signalized intersections. Saturation flow measurement is well established for homogeneous traffic. However, saturation flow measurement and modeling is a challenging task in heterogeneous characterized by multiple vehicle types and non-lane based movement. Present study focuses on proposing a field procedure for Saturation flow measurement and the effect of typical mixed traffic behavior at the signal as far as non-lane based traffic movement is concerned. Data collected during peak and off-peak hour from five intersections with varying approach width is used for validating the saturation flow model. The insights from the study can be used for modeling saturation flow and delay at signalized intersection in heterogeneous traffic conditions.
A Vehicle Monitoring System Based on the LoRa Technique
Air pollution and climate warming become more and more intensified in many areas, especially in urban areas. Environmental parameters are critical information to air pollution and weather monitoring. Thus, it is necessary to develop a suitable air pollution and weather monitoring system for urban areas. In this study, a vehicle monitoring system (VMS) based on the IoT technique is developed. Cars are selected as the research tool because it can reach a greater number of streets to collect data. The proposed VMS can monitor different environmental parameters, including ambient temperature and humidity, and air quality parameters, including PM2.5, TSP, SO2, NO2, CO, and O3. The VMS can provide other information, including GPS signals and the vibration information through driving a car on the street. Different sensor modules are used to measure the parameters and collect the measured data and transmit them to a cloud server through the LoRa protocol. A user interface is used to show the sensing data storing at the cloud server. To examine the performance of the system, a researcher drove a Nissan x-trail 1998 to the area close to the Da’an District office in Taipei to collect monitoring data. The collected data are instantly shown on the user interface. The four kinds of information are provided by the interface: GPS positions, weather parameters, vehicle information, and air quality information. With the proposed VMS, users can obtain the information regarding air quality and weather conditions when they drive their car to an urban area. Also, government agencies can make decisions on traffic planning based on the information provided by the proposed VMS.
Implementation of Smart Card Automatic Fare Collection Technology in Small Transit Agencies for Standards Development
Many large transit agencies have adopted RFID technology and electronic automatic fare collection (AFC) or smart card systems, but small and rural agencies remain tied to obsolete manual, cash-based fare collection. Small countries or transit agencies can benefit from the implementation of smart card AFC technology with the promise of increased passenger convenience, added passenger satisfaction and improved agency efficiency. For transit agencies, it reduces revenue loss, improves passenger flow and bus stop data. For countries, further implementation into security, distribution of social services or currency transactions can provide greater benefits. However, small countries or transit agencies cannot afford expensive proprietary smart card solutions typically offered by the major system suppliers. Deployment of Contactless Fare Media System (CFMS) Standard eliminates the proprietary solution, ultimately lowering the cost of implementation. Acumen Building Enterprise, Inc. chose the Yuma County Intergovernmental Public Transportation Authority (YCIPTA) existing proprietary YCAT smart card system to implement CFMS. The revised system enables the purchase of fare product online with prepaid debit or credit cards using the Payment Gateway Processor. Open and interoperable smart card standards for transit have been developed. During the 90-day Pilot Operation conducted, the transit agency gathered the data from the bus AcuFare 200 Card Reader, loads (copies) the data to a USB Thumb Drive and uploads the data to the Acumen Host Processing Center for consolidation of the data into the transit agency master data file. The transition from the existing proprietary smart card data format to the new CFMS smart card data format was transparent to the transit agency cardholders. It was proven that open standards and interoperability design can work and reduce both implementation and operational costs for small transit agencies or countries looking to expand smart card technology. Acumen was able to avoid the implementation of the Payment Card Industry (PCI) Data Security Standards (DSS) which is expensive to develop and costly to operate on a continuing basis. Due to the substantial additional complexities of implementation and the variety of options presented to the transit agency cardholder, Acumen chose to implement only the Directed Autoload. To improve the implementation efficiency and the results for a similar undertaking, it should be considered that some passengers lack credit cards and are averse to technology. There are more than 1,300 small and rural agencies in the United States. This grows by 10 fold when considering small countries or rural locations throughout Latin American and the world. Acumen is evaluating additional countries, sites or transit agency that can benefit from the smart card systems. Frequently, payment card systems require extensive security procedures for implementation. The Project demonstrated the ability to purchase fare value, rides and passes with credit cards on the internet at a reasonable cost without highly complex security requirements.