Routing in MANET is extremely challenging because of MANETs dynamic features, its limited bandwidth, frequent topology changes caused by node mobility and power energy consumption. In order to efficiently transmit data to destinations, the applicable routing algorithms must be implemented in mobile ad-hoc networks. Thus we can increase the efficiency of the routing by satisfying the Quality of Service (QoS) parameters by developing routing algorithms for MANETs. The algorithms that are inspired by the principles of natural biological evolution and distributed collective behavior of social colonies have shown excellence in dealing with complex optimization problems and are becoming more popular. This paper presents a survey on few meta-heuristic algorithms and naturally-inspired algorithms.
Over the past epoch a rampant amount of work has been done in the data clustering research under the unsupervised learning technique in Data mining. Furthermore several algorithms and methods have been proposed focusing on clustering different data types, representation of cluster models, and accuracy rates of the clusters. However no single clustering algorithm proves to be the most efficient in providing best results. Accordingly in order to find the solution to this issue a new technique, called Cluster ensemble method was bloomed. This cluster ensemble is a good alternative approach for facing the cluster analysis problem. The main hope of the cluster ensemble is to merge different clustering solutions in such a way to achieve accuracy and to improve the quality of individual data clustering. Due to the substantial and unremitting development of new methods in the sphere of data mining and also the incessant interest in inventing new algorithms, makes obligatory to scrutinize a critical analysis of the existing techniques and the future novelty. This paper exposes the comparative study of different cluster ensemble methods along with their features, systematic working process and the average accuracy and error rates of each ensemble methods. Consequently this speculative and comprehensive analysis will be very useful for the community of clustering practitioners and also helps in deciding the most suitable one to rectify the problem in hand.
Clustering in data mining is an unsupervised learning technique of aggregating the data objects into meaningful groups such that the intra cluster similarity of objects are maximized and inter cluster similarity of objects are minimized. Over the past decades several clustering tools were emerged in which clustering algorithms are inbuilt and are easier to use and extract the expected results. Data mining mainly deals with the huge databases that inflicts on cluster analysis and additional rigorous computational constraints. These challenges pave the way for the emergence of powerful expansive data mining clustering softwares. In this survey, a variety of clustering tools used in data mining are elucidated along with the pros and cons of each software.
There have been a lot of efforts and researches undertaken in developing efficient tools for performing several tasks in data mining. Due to the massive amount of information embedded in huge data warehouses maintained in several domains, the extraction of meaningful pattern is no longer feasible. This issue turns to be more obligatory for developing several tools in data mining. Furthermore the major aspire of data mining software is to build a resourceful predictive or descriptive model for handling large amount of information more efficiently and user friendly. Data mining mainly contracts with excessive collection of data that inflicts huge rigorous computational constraints. These out coming challenges lead to the emergence of powerful data mining technologies. In this survey a diverse collection of data mining tools are exemplified and also contrasted with the salient features and performance behavior of each tool.
An extensive amount of work has been done in data clustering research under the unsupervised learning technique in Data Mining during the past two decades. Moreover, several approaches and methods have been emerged focusing on clustering diverse data types, features of cluster models and similarity rates of clusters. However, none of the single clustering algorithm exemplifies its best nature in extracting efficient clusters. Consequently, in order to rectify this issue, a new challenging technique called Cluster Ensemble method was bloomed. This new approach tends to be the alternative method for the cluster analysis problem. The main objective of the Cluster Ensemble is to aggregate the diverse clustering solutions in such a way to attain accuracy and also to improve the eminence the individual clustering algorithms. Due to the massive and rapid development of new methods in the globe of data mining, it is highly mandatory to scrutinize a vital analysis of existing techniques and the future novelty. This paper shows the comparative analysis of different cluster ensemble methods along with their methodologies and salient features. Henceforth this unambiguous analysis will be very useful for the society of clustering experts and also helps in deciding the most appropriate one to resolve the problem in hand.
Web search engines are designed to retrieve and extract the information in the web databases and to return dynamic web pages. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which it includes semantic content in web pages. The main goal of semantic web is to promote the quality of the current web by changing its contents into machine understandable form. Therefore, the milestone of semantic web is to have semantic level information in the web. Nowadays, people use different keyword- based search engines to find the relevant information they need from the web. But many of the words are polysemous. When these words are used to query a search engine, it displays the Search Result Records (SRRs) with different meanings. The SRRs with similar meanings are grouped together based on Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD). In addition to that semantic annotation is also performed to improve the efficiency of search result records. Semantic Annotation is the process of adding the semantic metadata to web resources. Thus the grouped SRRs are annotated and generate a summary which describes the information in SRRs. But the automatic semantic annotation is a significant challenge in the semantic web. Here ontology and knowledge based representation are used to annotate the web pages.
Over the past era, there have been a lot of efforts and studies are carried out in growing proficient tools for performing various tasks in big data. Recently big data have gotten a lot of publicity for their good reasons. Due to the large and complex collection of datasets it is difficult to process on traditional data processing applications. This concern turns to be further mandatory for producing various tools in big data. Moreover, the main aim of big data analytics is to utilize the advanced analytic techniques besides very huge, different datasets which contain diverse sizes from terabytes to zettabytes and diverse types such as structured or unstructured and batch or streaming. Big data is useful for data sets where their size or type is away from the capability of traditional relational databases for capturing, managing and processing the data with low-latency. Thus the out coming challenges tend to the occurrence of powerful big data tools. In this survey, a various collection of big data tools are illustrated and also compared with the salient features.
Nowadays, the Web has become one of the most pervasive platforms for information change and retrieval. It collects the suitable and perfectly fitting information from websites that one requires. Data mining is the form of extracting data’s available in the internet. Web mining is one of the elements of data mining Technique, which relates to various research communities such as information recovery, folder managing system and simulated intellects. In this Paper we have discussed the concepts of Web mining. We contain generally focused on one of the categories of Web mining, specifically the Web Content Mining and its various farm duties. The mining tools are imperative to scanning the many images, text, and HTML documents and then, the result is used by the various search engines. We conclude by presenting a comparative table of these tools based on some pertinent criteria.
Data mining idea is mounting rapidly in admiration and also in their popularity. The foremost aspire of data mining method is to extract data from a huge data set into several forms that could be comprehended for additional use. The data mining is a technology that contains with rich potential resources which could be supportive for industries and businesses that pay attention to collect the necessary information of the data to discover their customer’s performances. For extracting data there are several methods are available such as Classification, Clustering, Association, Discovering, and Visualization… etc., which has its individual and diverse algorithms towards the effort to fit an appropriate model to the data. STATISTICA mostly deals with excessive groups of data that imposes vast rigorous computational constraints. These results trials challenge cause the emergence of powerful STATISTICA Data Mining technologies. In this survey an overview of the STATISTICA software is illustrated along with their significant features.
In the present world, predicting rainfall is considered to be an essential and also a challenging task. Normally, the climate and rainfall are presumed to have non-linear as well as intricate phenomena. For predicting accurate rainfall, we necessitate advanced computer modeling and simulation. When there is an enhanced understanding of the spatial and temporal distribution of precipitation then it becomes enrichment to applications such as hydrologic, climatic and ecological. Conversely, there may be some kind of challenges occur in the community due to some application which results in the absence of consistent precipitation observation in remote and also emerging region. This survey paper provides a multifarious collection of methodologies which are epitomized by various researchers for predicting the rainfall. It also gives information about some technique to forecast rainfall, which is appropriate to all methods like numerical, traditional and statistical.
Due to the fast and flawless technological innovation there is a tremendous amount of data dumping all over the world in every domain such as Pattern Recognition, Machine Learning, Spatial Data Mining, Image Analysis, Fraudulent Analysis, World Wide Web etc., This issue turns to be more essential for developing several tools for data mining functionalities. The major aim of this paper is to analyze various tools which are used to build a resourceful analytical or descriptive model for handling large amount of information more efficiently and user friendly. In this survey the diverse tools are illustrated with their extensive technical paradigm, outstanding graphical interface and inbuilt multipath algorithms in which it is very useful for handling significant amount of data more indeed.